By Dr Renita D’Souza
Botanical Name – Pisum sativum
Synonyms – Pisum vulgare Jundz, Pisum arvense L, Lathyrus oleraceus Lam, Pisum biflorum Raf, Pisum elatius M.Bieb, Pisum humile Boiss. & Noe
Family – Leguminosae
Green peas are nutritious vegetable. They are good source of protein and fiber. They are rich in nutrients that are useful in lowering the risk of cancer. In Ayurveda, peas (kalaya) are included under vata increasing diet, hence it is not recommended in Vata diseases like low back pain, neck pain etc. They are used in the form of soup in diarrhea.
Names in Different Languages
Sanskrit Name – Kalaya
English Name – Field pea, Garden pea
Hindi Name – Matar, Mattar
Bengali Name – Mattar, Mator
Marathi Name – Vataane, Vatana, Mattar, Watane
Gujarati Name – Matana, Vatana
Kannada Name – Batani, Bataani
Tulu Name – Batani
Konkani Name – Batani
Telugu Name – Gundusaa, Pachabatthani, Bataneelu
Tamil Name – Patani
Punjabi Name – Kabli Chole, Mattar
Kashmiri Name – Kara
Medicinal Qualities of Peas
Taste – Sweet
Vipaka (taste conversion after digestion) – sweet
Ruksha – dry in nature
Virya (potency) – cold
Laghu – light to digest
Sangrahi – absorbent in nature
Therapeutic uses of peas
Dahapaha – relieves burning sensation
Ruchi prada – improves taste
Pushti prada – improves physical strength
Effect on Tridosha
It balances kapha and pitta dosha
Nutritional Value of Green peas
Green Peas are rich source of fiber, protein, vitamin A, vitamin B6, vitamin C, vitamin K, phosphorus, magnesium, copper, iron, zinc and lutein.
Pharmacological activity of Peas
Pisum sativum possess antibacterial, anti-diabetic, anti-fungal, anti-inflammatory, anti-hypercholesterolemia, antioxidant and anticancer activities.
Pisum sativum possess alkaloids, flavonoids, glycosides, isoflavones, phenols, phytosterols, phytic acid, protease inhibitors, saponins and tannins
Anti-cancer activity – A review article proved that Pisum sativum possess Anti-cancer activity.
Pisum sativum is a herbaceous annual plant growing up to 2-3 meter long. Leaves are pinnately compound and alternately arranged. Flowers whitish purple. Fruits are pods which are 3-10 cm long. Seeds are green, smooth and round in shape.
Pisum sativum is commonly grown vegetable in the world. In India it is widely cultivated in Uttar Pradesh, Bihar and Madhya Pradesh.
Ayurvedic medicines with Pea as Ingredient
Hiowna – used to treat general fatigue and stress
Anu Tail – used as nasal drops in the treatment of diseases of sense organs, hair fall, premature graying of hair, headache, Strengthens voice etc.
(Ref – Ch.Chi 28)
Baladi Taila – used in asthma, fever, cough, vomiting, epilepsy etc
Amrtadya Taila – used in insanity, epilepsy, depression etc
Madhvarista (Ref – Ch.Chi 15) – cures hear diseases, anemia, sprue, skin diseases, piles, edema etc
Kalaya, Varthula, Harenu, Sathina, Mundachanaka
Dhanvantari Nighantu – Suvarnaadi varga
Kaiyadeva Nighantu – Dhanya varga
Bhavaprakasha Nighantu – Dhanya varga
Raja Nighantu – Shalyaadi varga
Shodala Nighantu – Shimbidhanya varga
Domain – Eukaryota
Kingdom – Plantae
Phylum – Spermatophyta
Subphylum – Angiospermae
Class – Dicotyledonae
Order – Fabales
Family – Fabaceae
Genus – Pisum
Species – Pisum sativum
Some authors opine that kalaya is peanut and harenu is green peas. Peanut increases Vata and Pitta and promotes healthy Kapha Dosha.
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