Pippali – Long Pepper is a very unique spice. It has all qualities of a typical spice like useful in indigestion, asthma, cough etc. but it is also a very good aphrodisiac and anti ageing spice. Consider this – Pleehamaye Pippali – For all spleen related disorders, Pippali – Long pepper fruit is the best.
“Pippali” is the term applied to the fruit of piper longum. This plant is indigenous to Northeastern & southern India and Ceylon and cultivated in Eastern Bengal.
The fruit is more useful and active when it is unripe. It is used after drying it under the sun / sunshade. The root is also the useful part and is called as “Pippali” in the classics.
Botanical Name- Piper Longum Linn.
Hindi Name- Pipala, Pipal, Pipar, Pipli
English Name- Long Pepper
Kannada Name – Hippali, Hipli, Hippaliballi, kuna
Telugu Name- Pippallu, Pippali, Modi
Tamil Name- Tippili, Argadi, Atti, Kalidi, Kalini, Kama tippili etc.
Bengali Name- Pipal
Malayalam Name-Tippali, Chapala, kana, Kattutipali, Magadhi pippali, Tippali
Punjabi Name- Maghaun
Arabic : Darfilfil
Bengal : Piplamor, Piplamul, pipli, pipul
Bombay : Bangali pimpali, piplamul, pipli
Burma : Peikchin, peikkhyen, pezinngoun
Chinese : pipo
Deccan name – Pipplie, pipulmul
French name – Poivre long
German name : Langer pfeffer
Greek name : Peperi makron
Gujarati name : Piper, pipli, Peepli
Italian name : Pepe lunga
Java name : Chabijawa
Konkani name : Hipli
Malay name – Pitroat
Marathi name – Pimpli
Mexican name – Teathancuaye
Nepalese name – Pipal, popal
Persian name – Filfildaraaz, filfildray, Maglizpipal, pipal
Santal name – Ralli
Sindh name – Filfidray, Tippali
Sinhalese name – Tippili
Spanish name – Pimentera larga
Urdu name – Pipul
Oriya name – Baihehi kkrykola, Magodha, Pippoli.
Pippali – because it takes care of the health of the patient and it nourishes.
Kana – fruit has granular appearance
Vaidehi – Long peppers usually grown in Videha region
Magadhi – found in Magadha region
Krushna – dry fruit is black coloured
Chapala – because of its hot nature.
Teekshna, Teeksna Tandula – Strong, piercing
Kola – each fruit weighs around six grams
Ushana – dry fruit is hot in potency, relieves pain.
Upakulya – found near marsh places
Shoundi – some fruits are slightly bent
Distribution and habitat
Piper longum occurs through out the country extending up to 1,800 metres altitude specially in sub montane tracts. It occurs in the hotter parts of India, from central Himalayas to Assam, Khasi and Mikir hills, lower hills of West Bengal and evergreen forests of western ghats from Konkan to Kerala. Also recorded from Carnicobar Islands.
This plant is indigenous to North eastern and Southern India and Ceylon and cultivated in eastern Bengal.
Flowering and fruiting time:-
Plant bears fruits during rainy season and fruiting after wards in Autumn months.
KINGDOM : THE PLANT KINGDOM
SUB GROUP : PHENEROGAMAE
PHYLUM : SPERMATOPHYTA
CLASS : DICOTYLEDONS
DIVISION : MONOCHLAMYDEAE
ORDER : MICRO EMBRYAE
FAMILY : PIPERACEAE
GENUS : PIPER
SPECIES : PIPER LONGUM
Photo courtesy – Shubhada Nikharge Via flick
Deepaneeya – Group of herbs that improve digestion strength
Kantya – group of herbs that is good for throat disorders,
Asthapanopaga – group of herbs useful in decoction enema (Asthapana Basti)
Shiro Virechanopaga – Group of herbs useful in expelling Doshas from head and neck.
Sheeta Prashamana – Group of herbs that suppress cold, cough.
Shoola Prashamana – Group of herbs useful in pain, abdominal colic,
Kasahara – Group of herbs useful against cough
Hikkanigrahana – Group of herbs that help to control hiccups
Trptighna – Group of herbs that relieves pseudo-satiation.
Vamanopaga – Group of herbs useful in Vamana Panchakarma – emesis treatment.
Bhava prakash included pippali among the Trikatu, Panchakola and Haritakyadi varga.
In Raja nighantu, 4 types of Pippali are mentioned viz:- Gaja pippali, Pippali, Sainhali and Vanapippali.
Raja nighantu – PIppalyadi Varga
In Dhanvantari nigantu, Pippali is told under the Mishraka varga and Shatapushpa didwitiya varga.
Dhanvantari Nigantu – Mishraka varga, Shatapuspadi dwitiya varga.
In Raja Nighantu 4 types are told
- Pippali( Piper Longum)
- Gaja Pippali (piper chava)
- Saimhali (Piper retrofractum)
- Vana Pippali (piper sylvaticum/P. peepuloides)
Sushruta – Pippalyadi,
Urdhvabhagahara – Group of herbs useful in expelling imbalanced Dosha through oral and nasal route through Vamana and Nasya treatments.
Shiro virechana – group of herbs useful in Nasya treatment.
Ashtanga Sangraha – Pippalyadi
Varieties of Pippali
Susruta and Vagbhata have mentioned two types
Pippali – Long pepper – Piper longum and
Gaja Pippali Piper chaba)
Raja nighantu provides four varieties – Pippali, Gaja Pippali, Simhali Pippali and Vana Pippali. The third and fourth varieties are from Sri Lanka.
As per PV Sharma, Simhalese Pippali is from Sri Lanka, is Piper retrofractum Vahl.
Vanapippali, found in Assam, Bengal, is Piper sylvaticum or Piper peepuloides.
Found in the hotter parts of India, from central Himalayas to Assam, Khasi and Mikir hills. Also found in forest of western ghats from Konkan to Kerala.
Major chemical constituents
Essential oil. Mono and sesquiterpenes, caryophyllene (mainly), Piperine, Piperlongumine, Piperlonguminine, Pipernonaline, Piperundecalidine, Pipercide, Sesamin, B- sitosterol four aristolactams
(cepharanone B. aristolactum All. Piperlactum A and piperolactam B) five 4-5 dioxoaporphines etc.
(Reference: Illustrated Dravyaguna Vijnana, Vol. II, by Dr JLN Shastry)
Piper longum medicinal Properties
Rasa (taste) – Katu (pungent)
Guna- Laghu, Teekshna (lite,strong, piercing)
Vipaka- Madhura – Undergoes sweet taste conversion after digestion
Veerya – Ushna – Hot potency. (wet variety has cold potency)
Effect on Tridosha – Balances Vata and Kapha Doshas. (wet variety increases Kapha Dosha).
Part used, dosage
Part used- Fruit, root
In this article, only the fruit is explained. Long pepper root is explained separately here
Dosage- Powder 0.5-1 gram in a single or multiple doses per day, usually administered after food.
Piper longum benefits
Wet, fresh long pepper uses:
Shleshmala – Increases Kapha Dosha
Madhura – sweet
Guru – heavy
Snigdha – unctuous, oily
Pittahara – Balances Pitta Dosha.
Dry long pepper fruit uses:
Kapha Vataghni – Balances Kapha and Vata Dosha
Katu – Pungent taste
Ushna – hot
Vrushya – aphrodisiac
Pitta Avirodhini – Does not increase Pitta to a large extent.
Deepani – improves digestion strength
Rasayani – anti ageing, rejuvenative
Anushna – not very hot
Snigdha – unctuous, oily
Rechani – causes purgation
Shwasahara – useful in asthma, COPD and other respiratory diseases
Kasahara – relieves cough, cold
Udarahara – useful in ascites
Kushtahara – useful in skin diseases
Pramehahara – useful in diabetes
Gulmahara – useful in abdominal tumor
Arshahara – relieves piles, hemorrhoids
Amanut – useful in indigestion, relieves Ama
Marutahara – Useful in Vata imbalance disorders
Pittaprakopini – slightly increases Pitta.
Kshayapaha – relieves chronic lung disorders, tuberculosis.
Long pepper for splenic disorder–
Fine powder of pippali (Piper longum) is taken in the dose of 3-4 gram along with warm water.
Long pepper for obesity – Pippali is administered along with honey to treat obesity, Kapha imbalance disorders like cold, cough, asthma, fever. This combination improves digestion strength, acts as aphrodisiac and Medhya – improves intelligence.
Long pepper for Asthma, Anaemia – Long pepper powder one part and jaggery two part is mixed and administered to relieve cough, asthma, anaemia, cardiac disorders, anaemia and intestinal worm infestation.
Pippali for tuberculosis: Long pepper is very useful to improve lung strength, because it is rejuvenative and anti ageing, and because it improves appetite, it helps to avoid weight loss associated with tuberculosis and its treatment. It also helps to prevent liver damage that sometimes results from the medicines used in tuberculosis management.
For rheumatoid arthritis – Root decoction (Moola Kashaya) of an herb called Patala Garudi (Cocculus hirsutus) is administered along with Pippali (long pepper) in treating Amavata – rheumatoid arthritis.
Long pepper should not be used in excess or for a very long period of time, without Panchakarma and Rasayana procedure. If used in excess without precaution, because of its heaviness (Guru) and liquefying properties (Prakledini), it causes Kapha increase. Because of its hotness, it increases Pitta Dosha and because of its less oiliness (Alpasneha) and hotness, it does not contribute to Vata balance. Hence, overall, it contributes to increase of Tridosha. Hence, not ideal for long term / excess consumption without Panchakarma procedure (like staying away from Sunlight, excess wind, with good amount of milk and ghee consumption etc).
Not ideal for people with Pitta Prakruti persons.
It is best to be avoided in infants.
It can be used in children in a small dose of 250 mg per day, along with milk and ghee.
It can be used in lactating mothers in lower doses.
For use in pregnancy, medical advise is required.
Is a special treatment procedure, wherein long pepper fruit powder is given in a gradual increase and decreasing dose along with milk. This is extensively used in liver and spleen disorders. Read in detail about Pippali Rasayana
Ayurveda medicines with Pippali as ingredient:
Trikatu Churna – a combination of pepper, long pepper fruit and ginger – used in obesity, allergic rhinitis etc
Guda Pippali – used extensively in liver disorders.
Home remedy for cough using long pepper
whether this can be used instead of chilly or pepper?
In small quantities, of just half a gram a day, it can be used in place of chilly or pepper. for one or two months of time.
Home remedy for bloating
Long pepper Home remedy for bloating and fullness of abdomen
Intake of boiled barley along with half a teaspoon of long pepper + a teaspoon of ghee is useful to relieve bloating and gaseous distention of abdomen. Charaka Chikitsasthana 5th chapter.
Long pepper for sexual strength:
Vrushya Pippali: – Aphrodisiac remedy using long pepper fruit:
Reference: Charaka Chikitsa Sthana 2.3/12-13
30 Pippali fruits are made to a fine paste and fried with 1 Prakuncha (Pala = 48 ml) of oil and ghee.
This is added with sugar and honey
And to this, milk is poured directly from the cow udder.
Dosage: 3 – 5 grams, once or twice a day, 10 minutes before food.
Pathya: By taking Shastika rice along with the milk and ghee
Useful in erectile dysfunction and premature ejaculation.
Market available types
In market 2 types are available
Why long pepper is not suitable for long term use:
Pippali (Piper Longum Linn) in spite of their pungent taste are:
Madhura vipaka – sweet in Vipaka
Guru – heavy
Atyartham snigdha ushna – neither too unctuous nor too hot,
Prakledinyo – deliquescent and
useful as medicine when administrated afresh.
Depending upon the frequency of use they are both useful and harmful.
When properly used (in small dose for a short period) they produce good results instantaneously, otherwise, they are responsible for the accumulation of Doshas.
When continuously used in large dose, they aggravated Pitta owing to their hot property.
They do not alleviate Vata because they are not adequately unctuous or hot.
Therefore, Pippali – Long pepper fruit – Piper longum (piper longum Linn) is not to be used in excess. Reference: Charaka Samhita Vimana Sthana 1/16