Pippali – Long Pepper Fruit Uses, Dose, Side Effects

Pippali  – Long Pepper is a very unique spice. It has all qualities of a typical spice like useful in indigestion, asthma, cough etc. but it is also a very good aphrodisiac and anti ageing spice.  Consider this – Pleehamaye Pippali – For all spleen related disorders, Pippali – Long pepper fruit is the best. 

“Pippali” is the term applied to the fruit of piper longum. This plant is indigenous to Northeastern & southern India and Ceylon and cultivated in Eastern Bengal.

The fruit is more useful and active when it is unripe. It is used after drying it under the sun / sunshade. The root is also the useful part and is called as “Pippali”  in the classics.

Botanical Name- Piper Longum Linn.
Family- PIPERACEAE.

Vernacular Names

Hindi Name- Pipala, Pipal, Pipar, Pipli
English Name- Long Pepper
Kannada Name – Hippali, Hipli, Hippaliballi, kuna,
Telugu Name- Pippallu, Pippali, Modi
Tamil Name- Tippili, Argadi, Atti, Kalidi, Kalini, Kama tippili etc.
Bengali Name- Pipal, Pipul, Peepul
Malayalam Name-Tippali, Chapala, kana, Kattutipali, Magadhi pippali, Tippali
Punjabi Name- Maghaun
Arabic : Darfilfil
Bengal : Piplamor, Piplamul, pipli, pipul
Bombay : Bangali pimpali, piplamul, pipli
Burma : Peikchin, peikkhyen, pezinngoun
Chinese : pipo
Deccan name – Pipplie, pipulmul
French name – Poivre long
German name : Langer pfeffer
Greek name : Peperi makron
Gujarati name : Piper, pipli, Peepli, Peepar, Lidi pipal, Lindi peepal
Italian name : Pepe lunga
Java name : Chabijawa
Konkani name : Hipli
Malay name – Pitroat
Marathi name – Pimpli
Mexican name – Teathancuaye
Nepalese name – Pipal, popal
Persian name – Filfildaraaz, filfildray, Maglizpipal, pipal
Santal name – Ralli
Sindh name – Filfidray, Tippali
Sinhalese name – Tippili
Spanish name – Pimentera larga
Urdu name – Pipul
Oriya name – Baihehi kkrykola, Magodha, Pippoli.

long pepper plant

Medicinal properties

Piper longum medicinal Properties
Rasa (taste) – Katu (pungent)
Guna- Laghu, Teekshna (lite,strong, piercing)
Vipaka- Madhura – Undergoes sweet taste conversion after digestion
Veerya – Ushna – Hot potency. (wet variety has cold potency)
Effect on Tridosha – Balances Vata and Kapha Doshas. (wet variety increases Kapha Dosha).

Qualities as per Bhojana kutuhalam

According to Bhojana Kutuhala long pepper in its wet state aggravates kapha dosha, is sweet and cold in nature, is heavy for digestion and is unctuous In its dry state it possess the opposite of the above qualities. it is aphrodisiac, has katu rasa and is sweet in its post metabolic state, It is greatly useful in disorders caused due to vitiation of vata and kapha dosha, cough and dyspnoea.

Piper longum benefits

Wet, fresh long pepper uses:
Shleshmala – Increases Kapha Dosha
Madhura – sweet
Guru – heavy
Snigdha – unctuous, oily
Pittahara – Balances Pitta Dosha.

Dry long pepper fruit uses: 
Kapha Vataghni – Balances Kapha and Vata Dosha
Katu – Pungent taste
Ushna – hot
Vrushya – aphrodisiac
Pitta Avirodhini – Does not increase Pitta to a large extent.
Deepani – improves digestion strength
Rasayani – anti ageing, rejuvenative
Anushna – not very hot
Snigdha – unctuous, oily
Rechani – causes purgation
Shwasahara – useful in asthma, COPD and other respiratory diseases
Kasahara – relieves cough, cold
Udarahara – useful in ascites
Kushtahara – useful in skin diseases
Pramehahara – useful in diabetes
Gulmahara – useful in abdominal tumor
Arshahara – relieves piles, hemorrhoids
Amanut – useful in indigestion, relieves Ama
Marutahara – Useful in Vata imbalance disorders
Pittaprakopini – slightly increases Pitta.
Kshayapaha – relieves chronic lung disorders, tuberculosis.

Part used, dosage

Part used- Fruit, root
In this article, only the fruit is explained. Long pepper root is explained separately here
Dosage- Powder 0.5-1 gram in a single or multiple doses per day, usually administered after food.

Sanskrit verse

long pepper benefits
Pippali uses

Remedies

Long pepper for splenic disorder
Fine powder of pippali (Piper longum) is taken in the dose of 3-4 gram along with warm water.

Long pepper for obesity – Pippali is administered along with honey to treat obesity, Kapha imbalance disorders like cold, cough, asthma, fever. This combination improves digestion strength, acts as aphrodisiac and Medhya – improves intelligence.

Long pepper for Asthma, Anaemia – Long pepper powder one part and jaggery two part is mixed and administered to relieve cough, asthma, anaemia, cardiac disorders, anaemia and intestinal worm infestation.

Pippali for tuberculosis: Long pepper is very useful to improve lung strength, because it is rejuvenative and anti ageing, and because it improves appetite, it helps to avoid weight loss associated with tuberculosis and its treatment. It also helps to prevent liver damage that sometimes results from the medicines used in tuberculosis management.

For rheumatoid arthritis – Root decoction (Moola Kashaya) of an herb called Patala Garudi (Cocculus hirsutus) is administered along with Pippali (long pepper) in treating Amavata – rheumatoid arthritis.

Photo courtesy – Shubhada Nikharge Via flick

Long pepper

Classical Categorisation

Charaka-
Deepaneeya – Group of herbs that improve digestion strength
Kantya – group of herbs that is good for throat disorders,
Asthapanopaga – group of herbs useful in decoction enema (Asthapana Basti)
Shiro Virechanopaga – Group of herbs useful in expelling Doshas from head and neck.
Sheeta Prashamana – Group of herbs that suppress cold, cough.
Shoola Prashamana – Group of herbs useful in pain, abdominal colic,
Kasahara – Group of herbs useful against cough
Hikkanigrahana – Group of herbs that help to control hiccups
Trptighna – Group of herbs that relieves pseudo-satiation.
Vamanopaga – Group of herbs useful in Vamana Panchakarma – emesis treatment.

Bhava prakash included pippali among the Trikatu, Panchakola and Haritakyadi varga.
In Raja nighantu, 4 types of Pippali are mentioned viz:- Gaja pippali, Pippali, Sainhali and Vanapippali.
Raja nighantu – PIppalyadi  Varga
In Dhanvantari nigantu, Pippali is told under the Mishraka varga and Shatapushpa didwitiya varga.
Dhanvantari Nigantu – Mishraka varga, Shatapuspadi dwitiya varga.
Kaiyadeva Nighantu – Aushadhi varga

In Raja Nighantu 4 types are told

  1. Pippali( Piper Longum)
  2. Gaja Pippali (piper chava)
  3. Saimhali (Piper retrofractum)
  4. Vana Pippali (piper sylvaticum/P. peepuloides)

Sushruta – Pippalyadi,
Urdhvabhagahara – Group of herbs useful in expelling imbalanced Dosha through oral and nasal route through Vamana and Nasya treatments.
Trayushana(Trikatu),
Amalakayadi,
Shiro virechana – group of herbs useful in Nasya treatment.

Ashtanga Sangraha – Pippalyadi

long pepper leaf

Varieties of Pippali

Susruta and Vagbhata have mentioned two types
Pippali – Long pepper – Piper longum and
Gaja Pippali Piper  chaba)
Raja nighantu provides four varieties  – Pippali, Gaja Pippali, Simhali Pippali and Vana Pippali. The third and fourth varieties are from Sri Lanka.
As per PV Sharma, Simhalese Pippali is from Sri Lanka, is Piper retrofractum Vahl.
Vanapippali, found in Assam, Bengal, is Piper sylvaticum or Piper peepuloides.

long pepper fresh fruit

Distribution

Found in the hotter parts of India, from central  Himalayas to Assam, Khasi and Mikir hills. Also found in forest of western ghats from Konkan to Kerala.

Major chemical constituents

Essential oil. Mono and sesquiterpenes, caryophyllene (mainly), Piperine, Piperlongumine, Piperlonguminine, Pipernonaline, Piperundecalidine, Pipercide, Sesamin, B- sitosterol four aristolactams
(cepharanone B. aristolactum All. Piperlactum A and  piperolactam B) five 4-5 dioxoaporphines etc.
(Reference: Illustrated Dravyaguna Vijnana, Vol. II, by Dr JLN Shastry)

Pippali - unripe fruit with leaves

Research

Anti giardial and immuno-stimulant activity
Anti mycobacterial activity
Anti oxidant and antimicrobial activity

Side effects

Long pepper should not be used in excess or for a very long period of time, without Panchakarma and Rasayana procedure. If used in excess without precaution, because of its heaviness (Guru) and liquefying properties (Prakledini), it causes Kapha increase. Because of its hotness, it increases Pitta Dosha and because of its less oiliness (Alpasneha) and hotness, it does not contribute to Vata balance. Hence, overall, it contributes to increase of Tridosha. Hence, not ideal for long term / excess consumption without Panchakarma procedure (like staying away from Sunlight, excess wind, with good amount of milk and ghee consumption etc).
Not ideal for people with Pitta Prakruti persons.
It is best to be avoided in infants.
It can be used in children in a small dose of 250 mg per day, along with milk and ghee.
It can be used in lactating mothers in lower doses.
For use in pregnancy, medical advise is required.

Interaction with medicines, supplements

Can this be used while taking Homeopathic medicine?
Yes. This product does not react with homeopathic medicine.

Can this medicine be continued while taking supplements like multivitamin tablets, Omega 3 fatty acids etc?
Yes. Generally, this product goes well with most of the dietary supplements. However, if you are taking more than one product per day, please consult your doctor for an opinion.

With western medicines
Seek your doctor’s advice if you are taking this product along with other western (allopathic / modern) medicines. Some Ayurvedic herbs can interact with modern medicine.
If both Ayurvedic and allopathic medicines are advised together, then it is best to take Allopathic medicine first, wait for 30 minutes and then take the Ayurvedic medicine.

Pippali Rasayan 

Is a special treatment procedure, wherein long pepper fruit powder is given in a gradual increase and decreasing dose along with milk. This is extensively used in liver and spleen disorders. Read in detail about Pippali Rasayana

Ayurvedic medicines

Ayurveda medicines with Pippali as ingredient:
Trikatu Churna –
a combination of pepper, long pepper fruit and ginger – used in obesity, allergic rhinitis etc
Guda Pippali – 
used extensively in liver disorders.
Home remedy for cough using long pepper

whether this can be used instead of chilly or pepper?
In small quantities, of just half a gram a day, it can be used in place of chilly or pepper. for one or two months of time.

Home remedy for bloating

Long pepper Home remedy for bloating and fullness of abdomen
Intake of boiled barley along with half a teaspoon of long pepper  + a teaspoon of ghee is useful to relieve bloating and gaseous distention of abdomen. Charaka Chikitsasthana 5th chapter.

Vrushya Pippali

Long pepper for sexual strength:
Vrushya Pippali: – Aphrodisiac remedy using long pepper fruit: 
Reference: Charaka Chikitsa Sthana 2.3/12-13
30 Pippali fruits are made to a fine paste and fried with 1 Prakuncha (Pala = 48 ml) of oil and ghee.
This is added with sugar and honey
And to this, milk is poured directly from the cow udder.
Dosage: 3 – 5 grams, once or twice a day, 10 minutes before food.
Pathya: By taking Shastika rice along with the milk and ghee
Benefits:
Useful in erectile dysfunction and premature ejaculation.

Market available types

In market 2 types are available

  1. Small
  2. Big

Why long pepper is not suitable for long term use:
Pippali (Piper Longum Linn) in spite of their pungent taste are:
Madhura vipaka – sweet in Vipaka
Guru – heavy
Atyartham snigdha ushna – neither too unctuous nor too hot,
Prakledinyo – deliquescent and
useful as medicine when administrated afresh.
Depending upon the frequency of use they are both useful and harmful.
When properly used (in small dose for a short period) they produce good results instantaneously, otherwise, they are responsible for the accumulation of Doshas.
When continuously used in large dose, they aggravated Pitta owing to their hot property.
They do not alleviate Vata because they are not adequately unctuous or hot.
Therefore, Pippali – Long pepper fruit – Piper longum (piper longum Linn) is not to be used in excess. Reference: Charaka Samhita Vimana Sthana 1/16

Distribution and habitat

Piper longum occurs through out the country extending up to 1,800 metres altitude specially in sub montane tracts. It occurs in the hotter parts of India, from central Himalayas to Assam, Khasi and Mikir hills, lower hills of West Bengal and evergreen forests of western ghats from Konkan to Kerala. Also recorded from Carnicobar Islands.

This plant is indigenous to North eastern and Southern India and Ceylon and cultivated in eastern Bengal.
Flowering and fruiting time:-
Plant bears fruits during rainy season and fruiting after wards in Autumn months.

Morphology

Piper Longum is a slender climber. Leaves are ovate, acute at apex, cordate and strongly oblique at base, 7-nerved, membranous, shining, dark green above, pale and dull beneath. Male and female flowers are distinct, densely arranged in thickly cylindrical pubescent rachis. Fruit is long and fleshy, red in color when ripes and turns black when dried.

Systemic classification

KINGDOM : THE PLANT KINGDOM
SUB GROUP : PHENEROGAMAE
PHYLUM : SPERMATOPHYTA
CLASS : DICOTYLEDONS
DIVISION : MONOCHLAMYDEAE
ORDER : MICRO EMBRYAE
FAMILY : PIPERACEAE
GENUS : PIPER
SPECIES : PIPER LONGUM

Sanskrit synonyms

Pippali – because it takes care of the health of the patient and it nourishes.
Kana – fruit has granular appearance
Vaidehi – Long peppers usually grown in Videha region
Magadhi – found in Magadha region
Krushna – dry fruit is black colored
Chapala – because of its hot nature.
Teekshna, Teeksna Tandula – Strong, piercing
Kola – each fruit weighs around six grams
Ushana – dry fruit is hot in potency, relieves pain.
Upakulya – found near marsh places
Shoundi – some fruits are slightly bent
Shaamahva, Krikara, Katubeeja, Korangi, Shyama, Dantaphala

Manufacturer:
Patanjali Divya Pippali Churna – manufactured by Patanjali Ayurved Limited.

33 thoughts on “Pippali – Long Pepper Fruit Uses, Dose, Side Effects”

  1. is madhuka herb and yasthi madhu are one and the same?

    Please clarify..

    yasthi madhu with honey is a good aprhodisiac?

    Reply
    • The term Madhuka is used for both two herbs –
      Licorice – Yashtimadhu and
      Madhuca longifolia.

      But most commonly, it referece to Yashtimadhu.

      Reply
  2. How can we take/eat Long Pepper ? Powder form or directly, by chewing? How to make powder if needed?

    Can a woman in her 7-months Pregnancy, eat/take Long Pepper alongwith Milk for her Asthma problems?

    thanks ….

    Reply
    • Dear sir, Fruit powder is taken in dosage of 1/2 – 1gm usually taken after food depending upon the Disease. It is also believed that pregnant and lactating should be cautious before using this herb as its effects are not well-known.

      Note: As we all are genetically different with different constitutions and patterns, we respond to treatments in many different ways. Hence Standard Ayurvedic Treatments are always individually formulated. For specific treatment, always consult with a qualified Ayurvedic physician.

      Reply
  3. Dear sir, This is the home remedy you can use in your daily routine:
    Take 1 tsp of ghee, 1/8 tsp pippali and 1/2 tsp ashwagandha. Mix in 1/4 cup of warm water. Take 3 times daily before meals.

    Reply
    • Hi, you can take it for a short period of 4 – 6 weeks. I would not recommend continuing it for longer period than 6 weeks.

      Reply
  4. Hi sir from past one month daily early morning and before going to bed i am having this 1gm of pippali powder with one tbsp of honey but i didn’t reduce weight and i didn’t see any change in my physic. So please explain after how much time it will start working on my body and how long i have to use this to see change in my physic or weight loss sir.
    Thanks

    Reply
  5. Dear Dr Hebber, brilliant information as usual. I was taking Pippali as part of a Pippali detox reccomended by an ayurvedic Dr. But since taking it I have been having such horrendous dreams. Do you think it has caused accumulation of vata, my vata dosha is out of balance? i have only been taking 3 capsules daily for 7 days. Thankyou
    Priya

    Reply
  6. Dear Dr Hebber. Pranams. Does pippali cause intense dreams? I am studying practitioner course diet and lifestyle and part of it is two week pippali detox. But myself and others have had crazy dreams during this detox. Is this normal?
    Priya

    Reply
  7. Hi, it can be given only when there are symptoms. Not good for continuous use for very long time.

    Reply
  8. Hi Doctor,
    I have body heat, i got hives and skin swelling, someone told me to eat water melon to reduce body heat.
    Plz advise if i can take Pipli powder with honey.
    Thanks

    Reply
  9. See my dad has COPD and he just ordered the long pepper. What should his dosage be and how much should he take at one time and for how long? He has been taking it with honey but he doesn’t want to over do it. What do you recommend?

    Reply
  10. I am 38 225 lbs and 5 ft 6 inches with no health issues besides obesity. What do you recommend I do with Pippali?

    Reply
  11. My son develops mucus and cold whenever he consumes milk.I was told to boil pipali fruit with milk and give him that milk.Is it safe.He is 10 yrs old.

    Reply
  12. If you do not have gastritis or acidity issues, then you can take it for 2 months time. Then give a gap of 1 month and continue again, in low dose.

    Reply
    • It helps to some extent. It may not cure cancer. Dose is – 1 gram at night after food with milk or water.

      Reply

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