Marmas Of The Head And Neck: Shiro Griva Gata Marmas

Article by Dr Raghuram Y.S. MD (Ay) and Dr Manasa, B.A.M.S
Shiro Griva Gata Marmas are the Marmas (vital points, delicate areas, points of the body causing death or damage or deformity when injured) located in the Head and Neck. 

In the head and neck, we can find Marmas of 37 Marmas covered under 13 names. Each Marma differ in number.

  • Sthapani and Adhipati – 1 each i.e. totally 2 in number
  • Krukatika, Vidhura, Phana, Apanga, Avarta, Shanka, Utkshepa – 2 each in number (Total 14 Marmas, i.e. 7×2=14) i.e. totally 14 in number
  • Nila Manya and Srungatika – 4 each in number i.e. totally 8 in number
  • Simanta – 5 in number
  • Matruka or Kanta Siras – 8 in number

When we sum up all these Marmas, the total count will be 37 Marmas in the region of head and neck.

Shiro Griva Gata Marmas, their location and number
Nila Manya
– 2 each on either side of Trachea or wind pipe – 4 in number – 2 Nila + 2 Manya – Injury leads to dumbness, Abnormal voice, Loss of taste sensation. It is a type of Sira and Vaikalyakara Marma.

Matrika (Kanta Sira) – 4 each on either side of the neck – 8 in number – Injury leads to  immediate death. It is a type of Sira and Vaikalyakara Marma.

Krukatika – Located at the junction of head and neck – 2 in number – Injury leads to instability of head. It is a type of Sandhi marma and Vaikalyakara Marma.

Vidhura – Located at the behind and below the ear – 2 in number – Injury leads to deafness. It is a type of Snayu and Vaikalyakara marma.

Phana – Located at the both sides inside the nasal passage, diply attached to its pathway – 2 in number – Injury leads to loss of smell sensation, Anosmia. It is a type of Sira and Vaikalyakara marma.

Apanga – Located at the outer angles of the eyes, below the lower limit of eyebrows on either side – 2 in number – Injury leads to blindness, Impaired vision. It is a type of Sira and Vaikalyakara marma.

Avarta – Located just above the eyebrows – 2 in number – Injury leads to blindness, Impaired vision. It is a type of Sandhi and Vaikalyakara marma.

Shankha – Located between ear and forehead on either side, in the temples – 2 in number – Injury leads to immediate death. It is a type of Shankha and Sadyopranahara Marma.

Utkshepa – Located above the Shankha Marma, at the level of limit of scalp hair – 2 in number – Injury leads to death after removal of foreign body or weapon from the site of impaction. It is a type of Snayu and Vishalyaghna Marma.

Sthapani – Located between the eyebrows – 1 in number – Injury leads to death after removal of foreign body or weapon from the site of impaction. It is a type of Sira and Vishalyaghna Marma.

Simanta – Located over the scalp of the head in the form of suture joints – 5 in number – Injury leads to psychological abnormality, fear complex, death. It is a type of Sandhi and Kalantara Pranahara Marma.

Shringataka – Located amidst blood vessels nourishing the sense organs (except skin) – 4 in number – injury leads to immediate death. It is a type of Sira and Sadhyo Pranarahara marma.

Adhipati Located at the confluence of veins located at the superior part of intra cranial portion – 1 in number – injury leads to immediate death. It is a type of Sandhi and Sadhyo Pranarahara marma.

Categorization of 13 Shiro-Griva Gata Marmas based on their structure
Sira Marmas (Blood vessels, Veins)  – 6 in number – Nila Manya, Matruka (Kanta Sira), Phana, Apanga, Sthapani, Shrungataka

Snayu Marma (Ligaments, tendons, fibrous tissue) – 2 in number – Vidhura, Utkshepa
Asthi Marma (bone)  – 1 – Shankha
Sandhi Marma (bone joint) – 4 – Krukatika, Avarta, Simanta, Adhipati.

Categorization of 13 Shiro-Griva Gata Marmas based on the effect of injury of the Marma
Sadhyo Pranahara (Marmas which take away the life immediately on getting injured) – 3 in number – Shankha, Shringataka and Adhipati
Kalantara Pranahara (which gradually take away the life (in due course of time) on getting injured) – 1 – Simanta.
Vaikalyakara (which cause deformity of structures on getting injured) – 7 – Nila Manya, Matrika, Krukatika, Vidhura, Phana, Apanga, Avarta.

Vishalyaghna (which cause death once the foreign body impacted at the site of Marma has bin removed) – 2 – Utkshepa and Sthapani.
Click to Consult Dr Raghuram Y.S. MD (Ayu)


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Comments

  1. The illustrations made this so much easier to try to understand. Thank you!!

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