Karonda Carissa carandas: Benefits, Remedies, Research, Side Effects

Karamarda- Carissa Carandas is an Ayurvedic plant used for the treatment of acidity, indigestion, fresh and infected wounds, skin diseases, urinary disorders and diabetic ulcer. 

Latin name- Carissa Carandas Linn.
Family- Apocynaceae

Names in different languages:
Hindi name- Karonda
English name- Bengal currant, Christ’s thorn
Kannada name- Kauli hannu, Karande kai
Assamese name- Karja tenga
Bengali name- Koromcha
Maithili name- Karauna
Marathi name- Kali maina
Tamil name- Kilakkai
Telugu name- Vakkai
Bengal currant or Christs thorn

Synonyms of Karamard
Krishnapaka phala- The fruit is black when ripened
Kshiraphena- Latex is seen when fruit is plucked
Sushena, Karamardika,
Vanekshudra – Medium sized tree growing in forests
Samlapushpa, Karamla, Panimardaka, Sthalapurkata, Avigna, Laghuphala,
Carissa carandas

Morphology:
Karamarda is a plant found all over India in the temperate climate. The plant produces berry sized fruits which are green when unripe and turns into reddish black when ripe. The ripe fruit exudes white latex when severed from the branch.

Karonda medicinal properties:
Rasa- Amla (Sour- in unripe fruit) Madhura (Sweet- in ripened fruit)
Guna (Qualities) – Guru (Heavy for digestion)
Vipaka –Amla (undergoes sour taste after digestion)
Veerya (Potency) – Ushna (Hot)
Karma (Actions) – Vatahara (reduces vitiated vata dosha), Hridya ( Benefit the heart).
Unripe fruit may cause increase of Kapha and Pitta Dosha.
karamarda

Part used – Fruit, Stem bark
Dosage:
Decoction -40 to 50 ml
Root powder- 1-3 g

Carissa Carandas chemical constituents:
The roots yield cardioactive compounds; cardiotonic activity is due to glucoside of odoroside H. Fresh fruits are rich in ascorbic acid. The seeds of the fruit is rich in potassium.
karonda flower

Medicinal Uses of Karamarda – Carissa Carandas

  • The fresh fruit juice of karamarda is consumed in a dose of 10-15 ml to improve the appetite and digestion.
  • The decoction of the root is given in a dose of 30-40 ml to treat difficulty in micturition.
  • The fresh juice of the fruit of Carissa carandas is consumed daily in dose of 15-20 ml to strengthen the cardiac muscles.
  • The stem bark of karamarda is given in a dose of 40-50 ml to treat different skin diseases.
  • The paste prepared from the leaf or bark is applied over fresh wounds for its treatment.
  • The fresh fruit is used to prepare pickles, jams, jelly etc.
  • The paste of the root is applied over the diabetic ulcer.

karamarda carissa carandas uses

Uses of Karamarda as per Ayurveda:
Unripe fruit,  but dried, carries the benefits of ripe fruit.
Ripe fruit, not dried, behaves like unripe fruit.
Sara – induces mobility, causes diarrhea, purgation, relieves constipation
Indicated in
Trut – excessive thirst

Unripe fruit –
Amla – sour
Deepana – improves digestion strength
Dahakara – may cause burning sensation
Bhedana – causes laxation
Asrakrut – not ideal in bleeding disorders.

Ripe Karounda fruit
Madhura – sweet
Ruchya – improves taste, relieves anorexia.
Laghu – light to digest
Balances Pitta and Vata Dosha.
Vishahara – Anti toxic
Root is useful in Krumi – worm infestation

Adverse effect- Excessive use of the fruit of karamarda can cause hyper-acidity. Unripe fruit may cause burning sensation and worsening of bleeding disorders.

Research articles about Carissa carandas:
Anti- inflammatory action: In this experiment first the researchers induced edema by injecting 1% carrageenan, thereby caused the release of autacoids, histamine, and 5-hydroxy tryptamine (5-HT). Once the inflammation starts declining from maximum, prostaglandins started to act which results in the migration of leukocytes into the inflamed site. Here, indomethacin was used as standard drug. The presence of the reported chemical constituents like myo-inositol, 4-c-methyl, 2-acetoxymethyl-1,3,3-trimethyl-4t-(3-methyl-2-buten-1-yl)-1t-cyclohexanol, dichloroacetic acid, 2-ethylhexyl ester, and 12-oleanen-3-yl acetate, (3-alpha), by GC-MS analysis provided the fact that they might suppress the formation of bradykinin and prostaglandin in the system.

Anti- bacterial action: Cold Aqueous, Methanol, Ethanol, Ethyl Acetate extracts of leaves of Carissa carandas in a final concentration of 500 mg/ml were evaluated for their antibacterial properties against some selected pathogenic microorganisms such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli using agar well diffusion method.

Methanolic, Ethyl Acetate and Ethanolic extracts ofCarissa carandas leaves show an average inhibitory zone diameter of 23.5, 22.0 and 21.5 mm respectively which indicate that the Methanolic extract has shown the best result having Zone of Inhibition greater than that of the standard antibiotic Tetracycline (17.0 mm).

Anti- convulsant activity: The aim of the present study was to investigate anti-convulsant effect of the ethanolic extract of the roots of Carissa carandas (ERCC) on electrically and chemically induced seizures. The ethanolic extract of the roots of C. carandas (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg, i.p.) was studied for its anticonvulsant effect on maximal electroshock-induced seizures and pentylenetetrazole-, picrotoxin-, bicuculline- and N-methyl-dl-aspartic acid-induced seizures in mice. The latency of tonic convulsions and the number of animals protected from tonic convulsions were noted. The data suggest that the ethanolic root extract of C. carandas may produce its anticonvulsant effects via non-specific mechanisms since it reduced the duration of seizures produced by maximal electroshock as well as delayedthe latency of seizures produced by pentylenetetrazole and picrotoxin.

Anthelmintic action: The objective of the present work was to evaluate the in-vitro anthelmintic potency of the petroleum ether (60-80), chloroform and ethanolic unripe fruits extract of Carissa carandas Linn using Indian earthworms (Pheretima posthuma). The various concentrations (50, 100, and 150 mg/ml) of the different solvent extract were tested in in-vitro for anthelmintic potency by determination of time of paralysis and time of death of worm. The result of present study indicates that the unripe fruits extract of Carissa carandas Linn Potentiate to paralyze earthworm and also caused its death after some time.
karonda fruits

Classical categorization:
Charaka Samhita- Hridya – group of herbs good for heart
Sushruta Samhita- Kantaka Panchamoola
Vagbhata- Hridya
Dhanvantari NIghantu- Amradi varga
Bhavaprakasha- Amradi phala varga
Kaiyyadeva Nighantu- Oushadhi varga
Raja Nighantu- Amradi varga
Shodala Nighantu- Amradi varga

Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Gentianales
Family: Apocynaceae
Genus: Carissa
Species: C. carandas

Author:Dr.B.K.Prashanth M.D (Ayu), Ph.D
E mail: drprashanthbk@gmail.com


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