Ginger Benefits, Research, Home Remedies, Side Effects

Dry and fresh ginger are quite similar in action except that the dry one is preferred to fresh on during summers, as per Ayurveda. Ginger is useful in indigestion, asthma, nausea and more. 

This plant is being cultivated in Malnad region of Karnataka since times immemorial. The world famous tourist spot “Shringeri” , formed by Adi Shankaracharya, gains its name from the term “Shringavera Giri”( the mountains in which Shringavera – ginger is cultivated). Later, the name got evolved in to Shringeri. (This beautiful small town happens to be my birth place.)

Botanical name– Zingiber officinale
Family-SCITAMINEAE

Wet ginger names in different languages:
Hindi name- Adarakh (fresh)
Kannada name – Hasi Shunti
Telugu name- Alla, Allamu
Bangali name – Ada
Marathi name – Aale
Gujarati name – Adu
Tamil Name – Shukka, Inji
Malayalam name – Inchi
Simhalese name – Amu Inguru
Farsi name – Anjeebeele tara
Arabian name – Janjabeele Ratab

Fresh ginger

Dry ginger names in different languages:
Hindi name – Sont, Saunth, Sunth,
Kannada name – Ona shunti
Bangali name – Shunt, Sunt, Shunti
Tamil name – Shukku, Chukku
Malayalam name – Chukka Farsi name – Janabeel
Arabian name – Janjabeele Aavis

Ginger flower

Ginger flower

 

Ginger plant

Different varieties
As per Amarakosha
Fresh ginger  is termed as Ardraka, Shringavera
Dry ginger is – Nagara, Vishwabheshaja

Distribution– Cultivated almost throughout India.

 

Zingiber officinale

Zingiber officinale medicinal properties
Rasa (taste) – Katu (pungent)
Guna (qualities) – Guru (heavy), Rooksha (dryness), Teekshna (strong, piercing)
Vipaka- Madhura – Undergoes sweet taste conversion after digestion.
Veerya – Ushna – Hot potency.
Effect on Tridosha – Balances Kapha.

Part Used– Rhizome
Dosage– Fresh Juice 5-10 ml; Powder 1-2 g; syrup 2-5 ml in a single or divided dose per day.

 

 

Dry ginger

 

Fresh ginger benefits – Ardraka – Vishva Bheshaja:
कटुकं वातलमवृष्यं चान्यत्र पिप्पलीविश्वभेषजात्||४||
रोचनं दीपनं वृष्यमार्द्रकं विश्वभेषजम्|
वातश्लेष्मविबन्धेषु रसस्तस्योपदिश्यते||१६६||
सस्नेहं दीपनं वृष्यमुष्णं वातकफापहम्|
विपाके मधुरं हृद्यं रोचनं विश्वभेषजम्||२९६|| (च.सू. २७)
कफानिलहरं स्वर्यं विबन्धानाहशूलनुत् |
कटूष्णं रोचनं हृद्यं वृष्यं चैवार्द्रकं स्मृतम् ||२२७|| (सु.सू. ४६)

Usually all spices with pungent taste are un-aphrodisiac and increase Vata Dosha. except Pippali – Long pepper fruit and Ardraka – Ginger Rhizome

Green ginger  / fresh ginger is
Rochaka – appetizer,
Deepana – improves digestion strength
Vrushya – aphrodisiac
Its juice is useful in Vata and Kapha disorders
Vibandha – constipation.

Fresh ginger uses

Katu – pungent taste
Ushna – Hot in potency
Guru – heavy
Rooksha – dry
Madhura Vipaka – undergoes sweet taste conversion after digestion
Hrudya – acts as cardiac tonic, congenial for heart
Deepana – improves digestion strength
Ruchida – improves taste, useful in relieving anorexia
Shophahara – relieves swelling, edema, anti inflammatory
Kaphahara – balances Kapha, useful in productive cough, asthma
Kantamayaapaha – Useful in throat disorders,
Svarya – improves voice
Vibandhahara – Relieves constipation
Anahahara – relieves gas, fullness of abdomen, bloating
Shoolajit – relieves abdominal colic pain
Bhedini – relieves constipation
Jihva Vishodhana – cleanses and clears tongue, relieves white coating
Kaphavatahara – Balances Kapha and Vata
Shwasahara – useful in treatment of asthma and chronic respiratory disorders.
Kasahara – useful in cough and cold
Vamihara – relieves vomiting
Hikkahara – relieves hiccups

Dry ginger uses

Dry ginger benefits:
Dry ginger is unctuous, promoter of digestion, aphrodisiac, hot in potency, balances Vata and Kapha, sweet in Vipaka, cardio- tonic and palatable.

नागरं कफवातघ्नं विपाके मधुरं कटु |
वृष्योष्णं रोचनं हृद्यं सस्नेहं लघु दीपनम् ||२२६||(सु.सू. ४६)

Madhura Vipaka – Undergoes sweet taste conversion after digestion.
Vrushya – aphrodisiac, improves vigor
Rochana – improves taste, relieves anorexia
Hrudya – acts as cardiac tonic, congenial for heart
Sasneha – has some amount of unctuousness, oiliness
Laghu – light to digest
Deepana – improves digestion strength
Shophahara – relieves swelling, edema, anti inflammatory
Vatodara – Useful in ascites due to Vata Dosha imbalance, bloating
Shwasahara – useful in treatment of asthma and chronic respiratory disorders.
Panduhara – Useful in anemia, early stage of liver disorders
Shleepada – useful in Elephantiasis
Grahi – absorbent. Being hot in nature, it helps to absorb excess moisture especially in intestines.
Vibandhanut – Breaks down stool particles into small pieces by its piercing qualities, relieves constipation
Amavataghni – useful in rheumatoid arthritis
Ginger is very effective to relieve dizziness, menstrual pain, arthritis pain, motion sickness and weight loss.

Usually herbs which are Grahi (absorbent) are not useful in constipation. But Ginger is an exception. For this, Bhavaprakasha says that ginger is absorbent for sure and is a mild laxative. It helps to break down the stool mass but does not help in its expulsion (na tu mala patane)

Difference between fresh ginger and dry ginger (ginger powder):
Ardraka – Wet Ginger – Rooksha (Dry) + Ushna (Hot)
Shunti – Dry Ginger – Snigdha (unctuous, oily) + Ushna (hot)
Wet ginger is dry and dry ginger has some oiliness or unctuousness in it.

Wet ginger – Bhedini – can cause diarrhoea or more useful in constipation.
Dry ginger – Grahi – absorbent, bowel binding, useful in IBS. It also relieves constipation, but not so useful as wet one in relieving constipation.

Wet ginger is usually used for short period of time. This is because of its dryness (lack of oiliness).
Dry ginger is Snigdha – unctuous, oily hence tolerable for long period of time. Hence, can be used for long time.

Effect of wet ginger is seen more on stomach and intestines.
Effect of dry ginger is seen both on stomach-intestines (Jatharagni) and at tissue level (Dhatvagni).

How to use ginger for headache:
Dry ginger is rubbed over a hard surface by adding a little water. The thin paste is applied over the forehead and person is asked to sleep. The paste is removed after 15 minutes by washing off.

Ginger water is used as a remedy to counter side effects of excess intake of sour mango. (Bhava Prakasha). Read more about sour mango benefits

Ginger with hot water – 1 – 3 grams of ginger is administered with a cup of hot water to relieve Ama (altered digestion and metabolism) in case of Irritable bowel disease, associated with low digestion strength. – Charaka Chikitsa Sthana 15th chapter.

Research:
Phytochemical, pharmacological and toxicological properties
Pain relief effect during periods
Effects of Zingiber Officinale on Reproductive Functions in the Male Rat
Protective Effect against Liver Cirrhosis
Analgesic and anti inflammatory activities

Ginger side effects:
In case of skin disorders, anemia, dysuria, bleeding disorders, non healing wounds, fever, while having burning sensation, during summer and in spring, fresh ginger should be avoided.
It is safe to use ginger in low amounts during pregnancy and lactation and in children.
It may cause worsening of gastritis in people having sensitive stomach.
Precaution with fresh ginger tea:
A bit of cardamom is suggested to be added to ginger tea made with fresh ginger. or else, because of its dryness quality, it can cause throat irritation and dryness of soft palate. This feature is especially observed in coastal areas with high Humidity. (Prof. Dr. Ranga Prasad Bhat)

Ginger home remedies:
Ginger, Amla, Raisin And Honey Home Remedy For Asthma And Cough
Ginger Amla Home Remedy For Asthma And Hiccups
Jaggery – Ginger Home Remedy For Inflammation
 

Fresh ginger juice, lemon juice and honey – take a teaspoon of each of these and mix well. The dose of this remedy is one teaspoon. It means the remedy will be useful for three persons. Do not overdose, as it may cause stomach irritation. This is one of my favorite remedies to get rid of excess sleepiness (ah! apparently, I need this remedy for quite a long time, in slightly higher dose), indigestion, vomiting, nausea and headache. It is also good remedy to relieve hangover.

Ginger juice extract  – 2 – 3 drops is instilled into nose to create irritation and to expel out sputum, to relieve sinusitis. But some may find it intolerable. Hence precaution is necessary.

Ginger powder is added to sesame oil or any pain relieving oil and is applied as paste to relieve joint stiffness and to improve blood circulation.

Bloating and abdominal colic pain: Sour buttermilk mixed with a pinch of rock salt and 1 – 2 grams of ginger powder at night, before food.
वातेऽम्लं शस्यते तक्रं शुण्ठीसैन्धवसंयुतम् | – Bhavaprakasha.

Ritu Haritaki –  As per season, Haritaki (Terminalia chebula) is consumed with different ingredients in different seasons. In early winter (Hemanta Rutu), haritaki – 3 grams is consumed along with 3 grams of ginger at night, 30 minutes after food. It can be taken along with a teaspoon of honey and a cup of water. Watch a video on Rutu haritaki

Therapeutic applications

  • To improve appetite and digestion – Mix thrikatu in some ginger juice and gargle few times to acquire a strong appetite and power of digestion.
  • In indigestion – the decoction of dry ginger and rock salt is very helpful in tackling undigested material.
  • In Jaundice – Take a tea spoon of powder of dry ginger with some jaggary twice a day for free passage of stool and as an liver toxic.
  • In Diarrhoea – Boil dry ginger and khus khus roots in a glass of water and take thrice a day to arrest loose motions.
  • In Cholera – Add some dry ginger powder to decoction of the flesh of Ball fruits and take this twice a day to arrest vomiting and diarrhea.
  • In Piles – Make small balls of dry ginger and jaggary, eat one twice a day to reduce the masses and allow free passage of stool.
  • In Colicky pain – Equal parts of shunti, til seeds and jaggary should be pasted and drunk with milk twice a day.
  • In Cold or Asthmatic attacks – Ginger tea – crushed ginger is added to boiling water and tea is prepared with this water. Take this tea to decrease inflammation and relieve congestion and bodyache.
  • In Asthma – A few garlic cloves may be added to the above tea. Ginger may be mixed with mustard oil and applied externally on the chest to relieve congestion.
  • In Earaches – Warm a little Ginger juice and instill a few drops in the ear to relieve pain and clear infected material.
  • In Arthritic Joints – A decoction of dry ginger and caster roots should be taken every morning for lubrication of  joints and relief from pain.
  • Blood in Urine – Boil teaspoon of dry ginger in a glass of milk and drink twice a day to arrest the bleeding.
  • In allergic rashes – Crush some old jaggary in ginger juice and take twice a day.
  • In Hiccups – Mix jaggary and ginger juice and instill a few drops in the nostrils to stop hiccups.
  • In Heart disease – Take a hot decoction of dry ginger often the morning meal daily.
  • Toothache – Apply a paste of dry ginger on the outside of the cheek at the point of pain.
  • On Stings – Dry Ginger paste mixed in yogurt is an effective topical application to reduce the swelling.
  • In scrotal swelling – Apply a mixture of dry ginger and salt solution on hydroceles to reduce pain and swelling.
  • In Vrishana VathaArdraka swarasa with one year old jaggery
  • In Parinama shoola – Kalka of shunti, guda and  tila with milk.
  • In Agnimandya – Drink Ardraka swarasa with old jaggery
  • In Vrishchikadamsha Shuntinasya along with water
  • In hemorrhoids Paana of shunti along with jaggery
  • In Deepanartha Shunti choorna with Yavakshara and ghee.
  • In Grahani Shunti along with balabilva choorna (unripe bael fruit powder) 
  • In Sheethapitta – Ardraka swarasa along with puranagrutha.
  • In Vishamajwara – Kwatha of shunti and mahabalamoola choorna
  • In Ama atisara – indigestion and diarrhea –  swarasa of Ardraka and grutha – Ginger juice is administered along with ghee. 

Ginger for rheumatoid arthritis:
Ginger is directly indicated in Amavata, grossly compared to rheumatoid arthritis. Hence, people with RA are recommended to included ginger in diet on regular basis.
They can use fresh ginger if they have constipation. Dry ginger, if no constipation.
Ginger paste is also applied externally to joints affected with RA. Ginger, being a very powerful anti inflammatory, is useful to bring down swelling.

Ayurvedic medicines with ginger:
Trikatu Churna –
Famous combination of ginger, black pepper and long pepper, used in obesity and indigestion treatment.
Ardraka ghrita  – indicated in gastritis,  indigestion and anorexia.
Saubhagya Shunti –  used in the treatment of complications that arise during post natal care of the mother.
Guladrakam –
 used in the treatment of Chronic respiratory conditions like bronchitis, asthma and running nose.
Shothaghna lepa used as paste, applied externally to relieve inflammation and swelling, as in case of blunt injuries and arthritis.

Ginger juice extract is used in purification process of opium (Ahiphena Shodhana).

Question: I came to know through a TV Program that the skin of Ginger contains toxic chemicals.Is it True? Is it necessary to remove the skin of Dried Ginger before use as it is said to be toxic?
Answer:
Ginger peel is edible. It is not a strict rule that the ginger skin should be peeled before use. It is not toxic.

Ginger chemical Constituents– a-Curumene, B- D- Curcumene, B- Bourbornene, d-Borneal, Citral, D- Camphene, Citronellol, Geraniol, Gingerol,a-&b- Zingiberenes, Zingiberol, Zingerone, Gingerols, Paradol,Gingerone A, ginner glycolipids A,B &C;[6] Gingerdiol; Gingerone B& C etc.
(Reference: Illustrated Dravyaguna VIjnana, Vol. II, by Dr JLN Shastry)
Ginger contains 584 picograms / gram of melatonin. (reference)

Sushruta- Pippalyadi, Trikatu
Vaghbata- Pippaladi

Ginger for dry mouth:
Ginger stimulates saliva and can make your mouth feel fresh for long
Chew a piece of fresh ginger slowly. Do it several times in a day
You can drink 2-3 cups of ginger tea mixed with honey to stimulate your glands

Reference of Shunti in different text books:
In Sushrutha samhitha shaarirasthana, it is mentioned as it cures Ruk and Garbhasthreeva with the help of other drugs such as milk, licorice and Indian deodar (Devadaru). 

In Charaka Suthrasthana, 27th chapter it is mentioned that quata of shunti and pippali with laja and dadima cures kshuth, pipasa and malapaha and it is pathya.

 In Charaka chikitsa, 21st chapter it is mentioned that draksha, parapataka, shunti, guduchi, dhanvayasaka at night cures thrushna and visarpa.

 In  Ashtanga hrudaya chikitsasthana, 1st chapter it is mentioned that hima of chandana, shunti ambu, parpataka and ushira cures thrud and jwara and it is having pachana action.

In Kaideva nighantu, it is mentioned that it is having katu rasa and ushnaveerya. It is deepana and vrushyaand it cures shvasa, kasa, vami, hikka, vibanda, vatha and pitta doshas.

In Rajanighantu, it is mentioned that it is having katu rasa and ushnaveerya. It is deepana and hrudya and it cures shopha and diseases of throat.

In bhavaprakasha nighantu, it is mentioned that, before the meals it always pathya with the help of lavana for bhakshanartha. It cause agnisandeepana, ruchya and vishodhana of kanta and jihva. It cures kushta, pandu, rakthapitta, vrina and jwara. It is contraindicated in daha condition and also nidaagha and sharadhruthus.

 In Madanapala nighantu, it is mentioned that it is having the actions like ruchya, amavathagni, paachani and laghu. It is having snigdha and ushna guna, katu vipaka and cause vibandha of vatha and kapha. But Ardraka is having guruguna and deepana and bhedana actions.

In sharangathara samhitha, it is mentioned that shunti with guda and thila, kalka is prepared and taken with anupana i.e., dugdha cures parinama shoola and amavatha.

In Dhanvanthari nighantu, it is mentioned that shunti is having snigdha and ushnaguna and vrishya property. It cures shopha, aruchi, vathodara, shvasa, pandu, shlipada etc.

Classical categorization
Charaka-

Truptighna – Group of herbs useful to relieve pseudo-satiation,
Arshoghna – Group of herbs useful in treating piles,
Deepaneeya – Group of herbs useful in improving digestion strength
Shoola Prashamana – Group of herbs useful in relieving abdominal pain
Trishna Nigrahana – Group of herbs useful in relieving thirst

Sushruta Samhita: Pippalyadi gana
Ashtanga Sangraha –
Arshoghna – Group of herbs useful in treating piles,
Deepaneeya – Group of herbs useful in improving digestion strength
Bhavaprakasha  – Shadushana, Panchakola
Dhanvantari Nighantu – Shoolaprashamana, pippalyadi.
Nighantu Adarsha – Ardrakadi Varga.
Kaiyadeva nigantu – Oshadi varga – group of medicinal herbs
Mahoushadhi nigantu,  Madanapala nigantu- Shuntyadi varga
Shaligrama Nigantu – Hareethakyadi Varga

Classification and varieties

  1. Shunti
  2. Ardraka  (According to Kaiyadeva nighantu, Raja nighantu, Bhavaprakasha,nighantu, Priyanighantu, Madanaphala nighantu etc.)
  1. Peeled Ginger
  2. Red sand coated Ginger
  3. Limed Ginger
  1. Jamica Ginger
  2. Cochin Ginger
  3. African Ginger
  4. Indian or Bengal Ginger
  5. Ratoon Ginger

Systemic classification
Sub-kingdom  : Phanerogamia
Division    : Angiospermae
Class   : Monocotyledanae
Subclass : Petaloideae
Series     : 2 – Epigynae (Overy inferior)
Natural order : Zingiberaceae
Genus : Zingiber
Species  Officinale

Sanskrit Synonyms of wet ginger:
Ardraka, Moolaja, Ardra Shaka,
Gulma moola – Knotty rhizomes
Anupaja – grows in moist places

Sanskrit Synonyms of dry ginger: 
Shunti, Mahaushadha, Vishva, Vishva Bheshaja, Nagara, Vishvaushadha, Shrungavera,  Rahuchatra,
Ushana – Hot in nature.
Katugranthi, Katubhadra – has pungent taste
Shunti –which is used in kapha vaathaja vikaras.A
rdhraka – Which is cause more salvation.
Nagare – It’s habitat is in nagar Pradesh also orit is best among katurasa
Visha – It’s assimilation is very fast like visha.
shrunga ver –it is having irritant prop.
avaafuchthr – leaves will be bend and looks like chathri.
Ahichathr – it looks like serphanthood
katuviddi – it is having katu ras.
katugranthi – it is having nodes and intrnodes.
katuthkat, katubhed, katukandh, katuthoya – it is because of its katuras.
kaphari   and shoshana – it dries up  anupaj – its habitat is in anupa Pradesh
Ushna – of its ushna gun.

Research based medical facts about ginger:
750-2000 mg ginger powder during the first 3-4 days of menstrual cycle is useful for primary dysmenorrhea.
Zingiberaceae extracts are clinically effective hypoalgesic agents and the available data show a better safety profile than non steroidal anti inflammatory drugs.
A standardized extract of ginger and artichoke significantly promoted gastric emptying in healthy volunteers.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci. 2016 Jan ;20(1):146-9. : 26813467

A statistically significant change from baseline for health related quality of life was detected after ginger essential oil inhalation.
Complement Ther Med. 2015 Jun ;23(3):396-404. 2015 Apr 21. : 26051575

Aroma-massage therapy with ginger and orange oil have potential as an alternative method for short-term knee pain relief.
Microbes Infect. 2006 May;8(6):1450-4. 2006 Mar 29. : 18534325 May 01, 2006

Aromatherapy is promising as an inexpensive, noninvasive treatment for postoperative nausea that can be administered and controlled by patients as needed.
Anesth Analg. 2013 Sep ;117(3):597-604. 2012 Mar 5. : 22392970

 

Daily administration of 1,000 mg ginger reduces serum triglyceride concentration, which is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease in peritoneal dialysis patients.
Perit Dial Int. 2015 Oct 16. 2015 Oct 16. : 26475844

Zingiber officinale reduces acute chemotherapy-induced nausea.Jun 30, 2012
Support Care Cancer. 2012 Jul ;20(7):1479-89. 2011 Aug 5. : 21818642

Ginger and artichoke leaf extracts appears efficacious in the treatment of functional dyspepsia and could represent a promising and safe treatment strategy for this frequent disease.

Evidence Based Complement Alternat Med. 2015 ;2015:915087. 2015 Apr 14. : 25954317

Ginger and cinnamon intake have positive effects on inflammation and muscle soreness endued by exercise in Iranian female athletes.

Ginger and Vitamin B6 are both effective in treating naseau and vomiting in pregnancy.
Midwifery. 2008 Feb 11. : 18272271
Ginger compares favorably to the drug sumatriptan for migraine headaches, but with lower side effects.
Phytother Res. 2013 May 9. 2013 May 9. : 23657930#

Ginger consumption enhances the thermic effect of food and promotes feelings of satiety without affecting metabolic and hormonal parameters in overweight men.
Metabolism. 2012 Oct ;61(10):1347-52. 2012 Apr 24. : 22538118

Ginger extract reduces delayed gastric emptying and nosocomial pneumonia in adult respiratory distress syndrome patients hospitalized in an intensive care unit.

Ginger has a significant lipid lowering effect compared to placebo.
Saudi Med J. 2008 Sep;29(9):1280-4. : 18813412

Ginger has a therapeutic effect on motion sickness.
Nutr Cancer. 2007;58(1):60-5. : 12576305

Ginger has reduces symptoms of osteoarthritis of the knee.
Arthritis Rheum. 2001 Nov;44(11):2531-8. : 11710709
Ginger is a potential cognitive enhancer for middle-aged women.
Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2012 ;2012:383062. 2011 Dec 22. : 22235230

Ginger is an aldose reductase inhibitor which may have contribute to the protection against diabetic complications. Sep 06, 2006

J Agric Food Chem. 2006 Sep 6;54(18):6640-4. : 16939321

Diabetes Mellitus: Type 1, Diabetes Mellitus: Type 2
Aldose reductase inhibitor

Ginger is an effective supplement for heavy menstrual bleeding.

Phytother Res. 2014 Oct 8. 2014 Oct 8. : 25298352
Oct 07, 2014

Bleeding: Excessive, Menorrhagia, Uterine Bleeding

Ginger is as effective as mefenamic acid and ibuprofen in relieving pain in women with primary dysmenorrrhea. Feb 13, 2009

J Altern Complement Med. 2009 Feb 13. : 19216660

Ginger powder supplementation can reduce inflammatory markers in patients with knee osteoarthritis.
J Tradit Complement Med. 2016 Jul ;6(3):199-203. 2015 Jan 28. : 27419081

Ginger reduces chemotherapy-induced nausea.
Integr Cancer Ther. 2012 Feb 7. 2012 Feb 7. : 22313739
Ginger reduces the tendency to vomiting and cold sweating due to seasickness significantly better than placebo.
Acta Otolaryngol. 1988 Jan-Feb;105(1-2):45-9. : 3277342

Ginger root powder is effective in reducing severity of acute and delayed chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting as additional therapy to ondensetron and dexamethasone in patients receiving chemotherapy.
Pediatric Blood Cancer. 2010 Sep 14. 2010 Sep 14. : 20842754

Ginger root reduces vertigo in human subjects. Jan 01, 1986
ORL J Otorhinolaryngol Relat Spec. 1986;48(5):282-6. : 3537898
Ginger stimulates gastric emptying in patients with functional dyspepsia.
World J Gastroenterol. 2011 Jan 7;17(1):105-10. : 21218090

Ginger supplementation is an effective treatment for type 2 diabetes. Feb 03, 2014
Int J Food Sci Nutr. 2014 Feb 4. 2014 Feb 4. : 24490949
Ginger supplementation may be used to accelerate recovery of muscle strength following intense exercise
Phytotherapy Res. 2015 Jun ;29(6):887-93. 2015 Mar 18. : 25787877

Ginger supplementation with antitubercular treatment significantly lowered TNF alpha, ferritin and MDA concentrations.May 31, 2016

J Complement Integr Med. 2016 Jun 1 ;13(2):201-6. : 27089418
May 31, 2016

Tuberculosis
Integrative Medicine
Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Antioxidants, Malondialdehyde Down-regulation, Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF) Alpha Inhibitor

Ginger syrup may be effective as an antiemetic in early pregnancy.Sep 01, 2002

Altern Ther Health Med. 2002 Sep-Oct;8(5):89-91. : 12233808
Sep 01, 2002

Morning Sickness

Ginger-salt moxibustion is therapeutic for poststroke urinary disorders. Sep 01, 2006

Zhongguo Zhen Jiu. 2006 Sep;26(9):621-4. : 17036477
Sep 01, 2006

Neurogenic Bladder, Stroke: PostStroke Urinary Disorders
Moxibustion

Lavender and ginger oil reduce distress levels in children before undergoing anesthesia. Oct 01, 2009

J Perianesth Nurs. 2009 Oct;24(5):307-12. : 19853815
Oct 01, 2009

, Lavender
Anxiety: Preoperative
Aromatherapy

Nausea severity and the number of vomiting episodes were significantly lower in the Ginger intervention group than in the control group.Sep 30, 2015

Clin J Oncol Nurs. 2015 Oct 1 ;19(5):E92-E97. : 26414587
Sep 30, 2015

Chemotherapy-Induced Nausea
Chemotherapeutic

Protein and ginger may have therapeutic value in the treatment of chemotherapy-induced delayed nausea.Jun 01, 2008

J Altern Complement Med. 2008 Jun;14(5):545-51. : 18537470
Jun 01, 2008

, Protein Supplement
Chemotherapy-Induced Nausea, Nausea
Antiemetics

The effect of ginger powder supplementation on insulin resistance and glycemic indices in patients with type 2 diabetes: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.Jan 31, 2014

Complement Ther Med. 2014 Feb ;22(1):9-16. 2014 Jan 8. : 24559810
Jan 31, 2014

Diabetes: Glycation/A1C, Diabetes Mellitus: Type 2, Diabetes Mellitus: Type 2: Prevention
Hypoglycemic Agents

The herbal remedies examined had significantly beneficial effects on cholesterol in T2D patients.Aug 31, 2014

Rev Diabet Stud. 2014 Fall-Winter;11(3-4):258-66. 2015 Feb 10. : 26177486
Aug 31, 2014

Substances : Cardamom, Cinnamon, Ginger, Saffron
Diabetes Mellitus: Type 2, High Cholesterol
Anticholesteremic Agents
Plant Extracts

Treatment of primary dysmenorrhea in students with ginger for 5 days had a statistically significant effect on relieving intensity and duration of pain.Dec 31, 2011

BMC Complement Altern Med. 2012 ;12:92. 2012 Jul 10. : 22781186
Dec 31, 2011

Dysmenorrhea
Analgesics
Phytotherapy, Plant Extracts

Two grams of ginger may have anti-inflammation and analgesic effect on delayed onset muscle soreness.Dec 31, 2014

Med J Islam R Iran. 2015 ;29:261. 2015 Sep 12. : 26793652
Dec 31, 2014

Muscle Soreness
Analgesics, Anti-Inflammatory Agents
Plant Extracts

6-gingerol a component of ginger is extensively metabolized in H-1299 human lung cancer cells.Nov 13, 2012

J Agric Food Chem. 2012 Nov 14 ;60(45):11372-7. 2012 Nov 6. : 23066935
Nov 13, 2012
, Human In Vitro

Cancers, Carcinoma: Non-Small-Cell Lung, Colon Cancer
Antiproliferative
Biotransformation, Plant Extracts

Fresh ginger (Zingiber officinale) has anti-viral activity against human respiratory syncytial virus in human respiratory tract cell lines.Oct 31, 2012

J Ethnopharmacol. 2012 Nov 1. 2012 Nov 1. : 23123794
Oct 31, 2012
Study Type : Human In Vitro

Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections
Antiviral Agents
fresh versus dried potencies

Zerumbone was able to induce apoptosis of pancreatic carcinoma cell lines Jan 01, 2012

Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2012 ;2012:936030. 2012 Jan 29. : 22454691
Jan 01, 2012
Study Type : Human In Vitro

, Zerumbone
Pancreatic Cancer
Apoptotic, Caspase-3 Activation, P21 Activation, Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 Upregulation
Zerumbone

“6]-Gingerol isolated from ginger attenuates sodium arsenite induced oxidative stress and plays a corrective role in improving insulin signaling in mice.”Jan 10, 2012

Toxicol Lett. 2012 Jan 10 ;210(1):34-43. 2012 Jan 10. : 22285432
Jan 10, 2012

, Gingerol
Arsenic Poisoning, Insulin Resistance
Insulin Sensitizers

“Ginger extract (Zingiber officinale) has anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory effects on ethionine-induced hepatoma rats.”Dec 01, 2008

Clinics (Sao Paulo). 2008 Dec ;63(6):807-13. : 19061005
Dec 01, 2008

Liver Cancer: Prevention
Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Antineoplastic Agents, NF-kappaB Inhibitor, Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF) Alpha Inhibitor
Plant Extracts

“Ginger ingredients inhibit the development of diethylnitrosoamine induced premalignant phenotype in rat chemical hepatocarcinogenesis model.”Nov 01, 2010

Biofactors. 2010 Nov-Dec;36(6):483-90. 2010 Sep 24. : 20872761
Nov 01, 2010

Liver Cancer: Prevention
Chemopreventive
Plant Extracts

6-gingerol may be useful in the prevention and treatment of alzheimer’s disease.Mar 25, 2015

Rejuvenation Res. 2015 Mar 26. 2015 Mar 26. : 25811848
Mar 25, 2015

, Gingerol
Alzheimer’s Disease, Oxidative Stress
Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Antioxidants, Neuroprotective Agents, Nitric Oxide Inhibitor
Plant Extracts

6-Shogaol, a compound found within ginger, exerts a strong anti-inflammatory activity against urate crystal-induced inflammation in mice. Sep 01, 2010

Methods Find Exp Clin Pharmacol. 2010 Sep;32(7):467-73. : 19819286
Sep 01, 2010

Gout, Hyperuricemia

A combination of ginger and peony root may prevent memory impairment in AD by inhibiting Aβ accumulation and inflammation in the brain.Nov 29, 2015

J Alzheimers Dis. 2015 Nov 30. 2015 Nov 30. : 26639976
Nov 29, 2015
Study Type : Transgenic Animal Study

, Peony
Alzheimer’s Disease, Brain Inflammation
Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Cyclooxygenase 2 Inhibitors
Plant Extracts

A compound in ginger known as 6-Gingerol prevents cisplatin-induced acute renal failure in rats.Apr 06, 2005

J Agric Food Chem. 2005 Apr 6;53(7):2446-50. : 16971750
Apr 06, 2005

Substances : Catechols, Ginger
Chemotherapy-Induced Toxicity: Cisplatin, Oxidative Stress
Antineoplastic Agents, Renoprotective

Ameliorative Potentials of Ginger (Z. officinale Roscoe) on Relative Organ Weights in Streptozotocin induced Diabetic Rats.May 31, 2013

Int J Biomed Sci. 2013 Jun ;9(2):82-90. : 23847458
May 31, 2013

Diabetes: Kidney Function , Diabetes Mellitus: Type 1, Diabetic Glomerular Hypertrophy
Renoprotective

Anti-diabetic activity of Zingiber officinale in streptozotocin-induced type I diabetic rats.Dec 31, 2003

J Pharm Pharmacol. 2004 Jan ;56(1):101-5. : 14980006
Dec 31, 2003

Diabetes Mellitus: Type 1: Prevention, Hypertension
Hypoglycemic Agents, Insulin-releasing
Phytotherapy
Problem Substances : Insulin

Both in vivo and in vitro results confirm the efficacy of black pepper, ginger and thyme extracts extracts as natural antimicrobials and suggests the possibility of using them in treatment procedures.Sep 30, 2014

Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol. 2014 Oct-Dec;27(4):531-41. : 25572733
Sep 30, 2014
, In Vitro Study

Substances : Black Pepper, Ginger, Thyme
Pyelonephritis
Antimicrobial
Plant Extracts

Combined ginger and cinnamon have significant beneficial effects on the sperm viability, motility, and serum total testosterone, LH,FSH and serum anti-oxidants levelDec 31, 2013

Afr J Tradit Complement Altern Med. 2014 ;11(4):1-8. 2014 Jun 4. : 25392573
Dec 31, 2013

Substances : Cinnamon, Ginger
Diabetic Complications
Antioxidants, Spermatogenic

Dietary garlic and especially ginger have anti-diabetic effects. Mar 01, 2008

J Med Food. 2008 Mar;11(1):152-9. : 18361751
Mar 01, 2008

Substances : Garlic, Ginger
Diabetes Mellitus: Type 2
Insulin-releasing
Insulinotrophic

Dietary ginger and other spice compounds enhance fat digestion and absorption in high-fat fed situation through enhanced secretion of bile salts and a stimulation of the activity pancreatic lipase.Sep 13, 2011

J Sci Food Agric. 2011 Sep 14. 2011 Sep 14. : 21918995
Sep 13, 2011

Substances : Capsaicin, Ginger, Piperine
Fat Malabsorption, Indigestion: Fats, Steatorrhea
Enzyme Inhibitors: Pancreatic Lipase

Dietary ginger has a protective effect on lindane-induced oxidative stress in rats.Mar 01, 2008

Altern Med Rev. 2008 Mar;13(1):6-20. : 18389491
Mar 01, 2008

Oxidative Stress, Pesticide Toxicity
Antioxidants
Chemical: Lindane, Plant Extracts

Dietary ginger has hypoglycaemic effect, enhances insulin synthesis in male rats and has high antioxidant activity. Jan 01, 2011

Niger J Physiol Sci. 2011 ;26(1):89-96. 2011 Nov 23. : 22314994
Jan 01, 2011

Diabetes Mellitus: Type 2, Insulin Resistance, Oxidative Stress
Antioxidants, Hypoglycemic Agents, Insulin Sensitizers, Malonaldehyde (MDA) Down-Regulation

Dietary intake of C. longa and Z. officinale potentiates the non-specific host defences against opportunistic infections.Oct 31, 2012

Cell Immunol. 2012 Nov ;280(1):92-100. 2012 Dec 10. : 23295981
Oct 31, 2012

Substances : Curcumin, Curcuminoids, Ginger, Turmeric
Immunostimulatory, Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF) Alpha Inhibitor
Phytotherapy, Plant Extracts

Dietary spices have a beneficial effect on intestinal villi by increasing the absorptive surface of the small intestine, providing for an increased bioavailability of micronutrients.Feb 24, 2010

Br J Nutr. 2010 Feb 24:1-9. 2010 Feb 24. : 20178671
Feb 24, 2010

Substances : Black Pepper, Capsaicin, Ginger, Piperine, Red Pepper
Malabsorption Syndrome , Microvilli atrophy
Nutrient Absorption

Ginger (intravenous) exhibits antiparasitic activity against Dirofilaria immitis (heartworm).Sep 01, 1987

J Helminthol. 1987 Sep;61(3):268-70. : 3668217
Sep 01, 1987

Dog Diseases, Pets: Heartworm
Antiparasitic Agents
Plant Extracts

Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) elicits antinociceptive properties and potentiates morphine-induced analgesia in the rat radiant heat tail-flick test.Nov 30, 2010

J Med Food. 2010 Dec ;13(6):1397-401. : 21091253
Nov 30, 2010

Morphine Tolerance/Dependence, Pain
Analgesics
Drug Synergy, Phytotherapy, Plant Extracts

Ginger (Zingiber officinale) prevents ethionine induced rat hepatocarcinogenesis.Jan 01, 2008

Afr J Tradit Complement Altern Med. 2008 ;6(1):87-93. 2008 Oct 25. : 20162046
Jan 01, 2008

Liver Cancer: Prevention
Chemopreventive

Ginger and arabic gum may have therapeutic value in acute and chronic kidney failure. Jan 01, 2012

Ren Fail. 2012 ;34(1):73-82. 2011 Oct 21. : 22017619
Jan 01, 2012

Substances : Arabic gum , Ginger
Kidney Failure, Kidney Failure: Acute, Kidney Failure: Chronic
Renoprotective

Ginger and cinnamon extracts had potential therapeutic effects on G. lamblia infection in albino rats as a promising alternative therapy to the commonly used antigiardial drugs.Sep 30, 2014

Iran J Parasitol. 2014 Oct-Dec;9(4):530-40. : 25759734
Sep 30, 2014

Substances : Cinnamon, Ginger
Giardiasis
Antigiardial agents, Antioxidants, Antiprotozoal Agents
Plant Extracts, Significant Treatment Outcome

Ginger and constituent 6-gingerol could be used the prevention or alleviation of allergic rhinitis symptoms.Aug 31, 2015

J Nutr Biochem. 2015 Sep 1. 2015 Sep 1. : 26403321
Aug 31, 2015

, Gingerol
Allergic Rhinitis, Allergic Rhinitis: Prevention
Anti-Allergic Agents, Immunomodulatory

Ginger and Turmeric extracts may represent effective and natural therapeutic alternatives in the treatment of giardiosis.Mar 15, 2016

Parasitol Res. 2016 Mar 16. 2016 Mar 16. : 26984104
Mar 15, 2016

, Turmeric
Giardiasis
Antiprotozoal Agents, Gastrointestinal Agents
Dose Response

Ginger and turmeric rhizomes decreased the anti-inflammatory cytokines in hypertensive rats.Mar 21, 2016

Planta Med. 2016 Mar 22. 2016 Mar 22. : 27002391
Mar 21, 2016

, Turmeric
Hypertension, Inflammation
Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Interleukin-10 downregulation, Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF) Alpha Inhibitor

Ginger and zinc mixture protected against malathion induced toxicity to the liver and kidney.

Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol. 2015 Mar ;28(1):122-8. : 25816415

Ginger contains compounds with significant joint-protective effects in experimental rheumatoid arthritis.
J Nat Prod. 2009 Feb 13. : 19216559
Ginger contains the compound zerumbone, which inhibits colon and lung carcinogenesis in mice.
Int J Cancer. 2009 Jan 15;124(2):264-71. : 19003968

Ginger exhibits behavioral radioprotection against radiation-induced taste aversion. Jun 01, 2006
Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2006 Jun;84(2):179-88. 2006 Jun 21. : 16797061

Ginger extract ameliorates paraben induced biochemical changes in liver and kidney of mice.
Acta Pol Pharm. 2007 May-Jun;64(3):217-20. : 17695143
Ginger extract has an ameliorative effect on paraben-induced lipid peroxidation in the liver of mice.
Acta Pol Pharm. 2009 May-Jun;66(3):225-8. : 19645321
Ginger extract inhibited cell proliferation and subsequently induced the autotic death of pancreatic cancer Panc-1 cells.
PLoS One. 2015 ;10(5):e0126605. 2015 May 11. : 25961833

Ginger extract is superior to the NSAID drug indomethacin in a rat model of rheumatoid arthritis. Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol. 2009 Mar;104(3):262-71. 2009 Jan 20. : 19175367
Ginger extract markedly decreases Blood Urea Nitrogen (BUN) in a mouse model of uremia.
Pak J Biol Sci. 2007 Sep 1;10(17):2968-71. : 19090210

Ginger extract modulates the expression of the IL-27 and IL-33 in the spinal cord of EAE mice and ameliorates the clinical symptoms of disease.
J Neuroimmunol. 2014 Nov 15 ;276(1-2):80-8. 2014 Aug 19. : 25175065

Ginger extracts can be considered as an effective, economical and safe extract to circumvent phosphamidon induced hepatotoxicity.
Indian J Exp Biol. 2015 Sep ;53(9):574-84. : 26548077
Ginger has a beneficial effect on fructose induced hyperlipidemia an dhyperinsulinemia in rats.
Indian J Exp Biol. 2005 Dec;43(12):1161-4. : 16359128

Ginger has a beneficial effect on insulin resistance associated with fructose consumption.
Planta Med. 2012 Jan 10. 2012 Jan 10. : 22234408
Ginger has a gastroprotective effect through its acid blocking and anti-Helico bacter pylori activity. Jul 01, 2009

Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2009 Jul 1. : 19570992
Jul 01, 2009

Acid Reflux, Gastroesophageal Reflux, Helicobacter Pylori Infection
Anti-Bacterial Agents, Proton Pump Inhibitor
Natural Substances Versus Drugs, Prevacid (Lansoprazole) Alternatives

Ginger has a neuroprotective effect in diabetic rats.Dec 22, 2010

Food Chem Toxicol. 2010 Dec 22. 2010 Dec 22. : 21184796
Dec 22, 2010

Diabetes: Cognitive Dysfunction
Neuroprotective Agents

Ginger has a protective effect against dyslipidemia in diabetic rats.
J Ethnopharmacol. 2005 Feb 28;97(2):227-30. : 15707757
Ginger has a protective effect against kidney damage associated with diabetes.
Chin J Physiol. 2011 Apr 30 ;54(2):79-86. : 21789888

Ginger has a protective effect against the development of metabolic syndrome in high-fat diet-fed rats.May 01, 2009

Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol. 2009 May;104(5):366-73. : 19413656
May 01, 2009


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Comments

  1. Exellent article! Thank you.

  2. Dear Doc,
    Good to know your were born in sringeri. very divine place, indeed.

    Usually we get headaches at the back of the head and not the forehead. Eventually we end up taking saridon , however we try to avoid it, only it seems to work. Any gel or onitment cannot be applied on the back of the head due to hair. will ginger paste explained above help in headaches at the back of the head as well or is there anything else as replacement for the good old always working saridon?

    thanks.

    • Dr J V Hebbar MD(Ayu) says:

      For the backside headaches, applying ginger paste or any gel in forehead might only be partially beneficial.
      There are good Ayurvedic treatments and medicines such as Varanadi Kashayam, Rasnadi kashaya etc, for the treatment of headache. Please consult a doctor in person.

  3. Tks for the very useful information.

  4. V detailed article.
    Does dry ginger powder have a shelf life?

  5. Very useful as usual. Thank you.

  6. Excellent. Very useful. Thank you.

  7. Parin N Parmar says:

    Very good article! Thank you Dr Hebbar! 🙂

  8. Thanks, quite helpful information.

  9. Sudhakar Bhat says:

    Because of its multiple uses, perhaps it is referred as Vishwausdham & Mahaushadham meaning Universal remedy and Great remedy. Cheers!!! :o) hahaha…..

  10. very useful info

  11. Dr saheb replying somebody query you mentioned that ginger skin is not harmful and may not be peeled off. Skin is fine but it is normally coated with neela thotha to save it from ant bites which make it porous and useless.So I think it is advisable to clean the skin thoroughly if it is containing any chemical coating.But if it is clear and clean- may be used straight. I think you will endorse my views. Regds,

  12. thank you doctor. your articles arr very helpfulll.

  13. Is Ginger teekshna or Sunthi teekshna? Or are neither teekshna?

  14. Is there any restriction with regard to season on consumption of Garlic and Ginger?

  15. Dr Hebbar I have read that Sunth and Fresh ginger have different Vipaka. Is it true since you have mentioned both have madhur vipaka. Many thanks.

    • Dr J V Hebbar MD(Ayu) says:

      Hi, please refer to kaiyadeva nighantu reference in above article. –
      It says Ardraka – fresh ginger as Madhura vipaka.

      and many references in the article refer dry ginger also as Madhura Vipaka.

  16. Dear Doctor,

    My Ayurvedic doctor has asked me to apply grated ginger extract on my scalp for 15 mins 2-3 times a week and wash off with plain water for my thinning hair. Could you please let me have your thoughts on this? I have been having bad hair fall for a few years now after some chemical hair treatments and now the scalp is beginning to show in some places.

  17. Can taking 1 teaspoon dry ginger powder three times a day (A Government Ayurvedic Dr. has asked me ) cause burning after bowel movement? Can it not aggravate my acid reflux too? Pl. advise.

    • Dr J V Hebbar MD(Ayu) says:

      You can take it along with a teaspoon of ghee. You can mix ginger powder with ghee and swallow this paste with a cup of hot water. This will not aggravate acid reflux
      For further advice, please consult an Ayurveda doctor directly.
      For email advice, please write to our health experts here (paid service) – http://easyayurveda.com/consult/

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