By Dr MS Krishnamurthy MD(Ayu), PhD.
Fever is the most common health issue and it may be found as a disease or as a feature in several complex disease conditions. So managing the simple complaint of fever also becomes a herculean task many a times.
Ayurveda considers Jwara as the first disease in most of the texts and it refers to follow classical line of treatment where Amapachana (digestion) and Agni deepana (carminative of the digestive fire) are the two important entities to be followed. So the drugs prescribed under this category are having predominantly these properties followed with added advantages in various other respects so as to manage various complex disease conditions too. The Srotoshodhana(clearance of the channels-especially Rsavaha and Raktavaha srotas , Jwara beimng the disease of Rasavaha srotas) is the another important entity and the drugs specified here fulfill all these needs in various degree of effectiveness-
Let us review the quality and action of these drugs one by one in brief-
1. Sariva – Indian Sarsaparilla – Hemidesmus indicus– Roots
Blood purifier, coolant, carminative, anti arthritic, immune modulator etc.
2. Sharkara – Sugar
Tonic, rejuvinative, energizer, coolant, diuretic ,instant replenisher etc.
3. Patha (Cissampelos pareria Linn.)– Roots
Carminative, bitter tonic, blood purifier, stabilizer, anti pyretic, diaphoretic, brestmilk purifier etc.
4. Manjistha (Rubia cordifolia Linn.)– Roots or Whole plant
Blood purifier, anti arthritic, alkalizer, scraping, complexion enhancer etc.
6. Pilu (Salvadora persica Linn.)– Stem or whole plant
Laxative, anti pyretic, alkalizer, diuretic, laxative etc.
7. Parushaka (Grewia asiatica Linn.)– Fruits or Roots
Cardiac tonic, nourishing, digestive, stabilizer, coolant etc.
8. Abhaya – Terminalia chebula – Fruit rind
Laxative, rejuvinative, restorative, scraping, replenisher, astringent tonic etc.
9. Amalaka (Emblica officinalis Gaertn.) – Dry fruits
Eye tonic, rejuvinative, stabilizer, restorative, complexion enhancer, hemetenic etc.
10. Vibhitaka (Terminalia belerica Roxb.)– Fruit rind
Digestive, restorative, absorband, scraping etc.
Qualities in general and actions of Jwarahara Gana drugs:
The drugs referred here if analysed superficially does not appear as strong antipyretics and one can point out several very effective anti pyretics from classical as well as scientific studies. But indepth and thorough analysis of the subject matter and the underlying content with respect to the phenomenon of Jwara as per Ayurveda several multi fold entities will be explored.
Importantly the concept of the managing of the Sthanika pitta without disturbing the deranged digestive fire is evident by the combination of the drugs referred here.
The drugs mentioned under this context are Pittahara and astrinegtnt and bitter in nature.They are moderate and not deep penetrative and have the ability to moderate the doshas in the place of stomach and in the extremities (Shaka).The drugs are hot in potency and sweet in metabolic change or cold in potency and pungent in metabolic change is the special feature of such drugs.
Therapeutic uses of Jwarahara Gana drugs:
These drugs are useful in varieties of fevers and recurrent fevers as well as chronic fevers. Also they are effective in skin diseases, liver disorders, nervine problems and blood borne diseases.
The drugs in combination with potent digestives and carminatives and bitter ingredients have the ability to manage the infective diseases also where fever is the common feature.
Formulations containing Jwarahara drugs :
Sarivadyasava, Parpatakarishtha, Draksharishta, Drakshadi kashaya, Abhayarishtha, Amritarishtha etc are the few important formulations derived out of the above herbs.
Disadvantages of Jwarahara Gana drugs:
The dosage forms prepared out of the above drugs should be prescribed in appropriate dosage. If the dose is reduced and in appropriate combination is made the drug may not serve the purpose for which it is referred.
Simple formulations that can be made from the above drugs and their application in routine practice:
Simple decoction or hot infusion of Patha is capable of pacifying varieties of fevers.In case of fever associated with debility or in post fever fatigue decoction of Sariva or Draksha is proved to be effective.
Formulation development opportunities:
Even though Paracetamol, which is considered to be the nector or panacea of the mankind in the cases of fever several disadvantages are reported and scientific studies too have proved that it may cause acute and chronic liver toxicity. So herbal molecule is derived and practiced after scientific validation in experimental models as well as clinical trials society will be benefitted at the large. So the potent tablets, concentrated extracts or syrups can be planned out of these drugs so as to tackle pyrexia of different origin and nature.
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