Sudarshan: Crinum latifolium, Uses, Research, Medicine

Sudarshana- Crinum latifolium is a plant mentioned in Ayurveda for the treatment of fever, swelling, case of poisoning and skin disease. 

Latin name- Crinum latifolium Linn.
Family- Amaryllidaceae

Names in different languages:
Hindi name- Sudarshan, Chindar, Kanmu, Kunwal, Pindar, Kanwar, Barakanwar,
English name – Milk and Wine Lily, pink-striped trumpet lily, wide-leaved pink-striped trumpet lily
Bengali name- Sukhadarshana, Barakanur, Bada Kanod, Gaerhonar Patta, Nagdaun.
Gujarati name- Nagadamani, Nagrikanda
Kannada name- Sudarshana, Visha Biduru, Visha Mungali, Visha Mandala,
Malayalam name- Pulattali, Belutta-Polataali, Velutta, Polataali, Kantenna, Vishamula.
Marathi name- Nagdaun, Gadambi kanda
Tamil name- Visha Pungil, Visha Mungil, Perumanarivingaayam, Tudevaachi, Vishamungali.
Telugu name- Kesara Chettu, Vishamugali
Urdu name- Nagadaman,Nagdauna
Arabic name – Haliyon.
Burmese name – Koyang
Ceylon name – Visha mungil.
Chinese name – Quen Chou Lan
Konkani name – Kirathi Maari 

Sanskrit Synonyms:
Bala Mota, Bala: The one which gives strength
Chakrahwa: The arrangement of leaf is in charka manner.
Durdarshana: Bulb emits bad smell on crushing.
Jambhati: Grown in Jambhava desha.
Jambu: Bulb resembles Jambhu phala
Kandali: As it possesses bulb.
Medhi: Good for brain.
Meshaka: Eaten by goats.
Naagadhamani: Leaves resemble hood of the snake.
Rakta pushpi: Sometimes flowers are having reddish sting.
Ratna maala: Beautiful flowers.
Viphala: Acts against poison.
Visha mandala: Acts against poison.
Vritta pushpa: The flowers are in vrittakara

Morphology of Crinum latifolium:
It is a small plant growing to a height of 2-3 feet. The leaves are big, growing to a length of 2-4 feet and 3-4 inch wide. The leaves emerge from the rhizome and resembles like emerging from the ground. The flowering stems are stout, reaching about 2 m in height. The flowers have white color and pinkish tinge, emerge from the middle stalk and arranged in an umbel. The fruits are round, 2-2.5 inch in diameter having 10-12 seeds inside. The plant is found all over India in the temperate climate especially Central India.

Sudarshan medicinal properties:
Rasa (Taste) – Madhura (Sweet), Tikta (Bitter),
Guna (Qualities) – Ruksha (Dry), Teekshna (Pungent)
Vipaka – Madhura (Undergoes sweet taste after digestion)
Veerya (Potency) – Ushna (Hot)
Karma (Actions) – Kaphavata shamaka (reduces vitiated kapha and vata dosha)

Part used- Leaf, Rhizome
Rhizome powder- 1 to 3 g
Leaf juice- 5 to 10 ml

Chemical composition of Crinum latifolium:
The rhizome of the plant contains Glucans A & B, Alkoloids-zeylamine crinofoline, crinofolidine, tazetine, flexinine, harmenthamine, ambelline, galanthamine. The leaves contain alkaloids Latifine, Cherilline, 3-o-acetalamine, crinomine and crinine.

Uses of Sudarshana:

  • The paste of the leaves of Sudarshana is applied over the skin surface having eczema and fungal infections.
  • Fresh juice of the leaves of Crinum latifolium is given in a dose of 10 ml to induce purgation and vomiting in cases of adverse effect of poisoning.
  • The powder of the rhizome of Sudarshana is given in a dose of 2-3 g with honey or hot water in case of fever and joint pain.
  • The leaves of the plant is slightly heated and tied around joints having pain and swelling.
  • Fresh juice of the leaf is slightly heated and poured as drops to treat earache and discharge from the ear.
  • The rhizome of Crinum latifolium is crushed, slightly heated and applied over the external pile mass to relieve the pain and swelling.
  • In conditions of pustules, the paste of the leaf of Sudarshana is applied over it.

Uses in other systems
Siddha: Leaf / fresh rhizome- used in carbuncle, dropsy, ear disorders, diaphoretic, emetic
Unani – seeds used in forunculosis

Folk medicine:
In lakhimpur: The leaves are applied to skin diseases (CARTAR)
The leaves bruised and mixed with castor oil use ful in whitlows and local inflammation.
In Java: Leaf is used as emetic

Side effects:
Increased dose of juice of the leaf can cause purgation and vomiting along with abdominal cramps.

Medicines containing Sudarshana:

A-3 forte capsule: It is a proprietary Ayurvedic medicine which is used for the treatment for fever, body pain, immunity deficiency disorder etc.

Sudarshana choorna: It is a medicine in powder form used for the treatment of fever originating from the vitiation of all types of dosha.

Research articles related to Crinum latifolium:
Anti- oxidant action: In this study, we demonstrate potent in vitro antioxidant activity of an aqueous Crinum latifolium extract by an oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) value of 1610 ± 150 μmol Trolox equivalents/g. Furthermore, significant anti-inflammatory effects of this extract were shown by its potential to suppress indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) mediated tryptophan degradation in unstimulated- and mitogen-stimulated PBMC at IC50 doses of 241 ± 57 μg/ml and 92 ± 20 μg/ml, respectively.

Anti- microbial action: Antimicrobial potential of crude methanolic extracts of C. latifolium was accomplished by most commonly used disc diffusion method against a wide range of Gram positive (+ve) and Gram negative(-ve) bacteria. Extracts showed slight antimicrobial activity against Gram positive (+ve) bacteria while surprisingly showed significant antimicrobial activity against Gram negative (-ve) bacteria Escherichia coli.

Anthelmintic action: Anthelmintic activity was assessed applying five different concentrations of the plant extract and recording the time of paralysis and death. The lowest time for paralysis and death of worms, for test sample at highest concentration (50mg/ml), were found 24±0.45 and 46.4±0.60min respectively, which gradually increased with the decrease of concentration. On the other hand, albendazole, which was used as standard, caused paralysis and death of worms at 56.2±0.20 min and 77.4±0.24min respectively; whereas no mortality of the worms was observed, when distilled water was used as control.

Classical categorization:
Bhavaprakasha- Guduchyadi varga
Kaiyyadeva Nighantu- Oushadhi varga
Nighantu Adarsha – Musali kandadi varga
Ayurveda Dravyaguna vignana – Talamulyadi varga
Brihat Dravya guna adarsha – Krishna mushalyadi gana
Shaligrama Nighantu – Guduchaydi varga

Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Asparagales
Family: Amaryllidaceae
Subfamily: Amaryllidoideae
Genus: Crinum
Species: C. latifolium

Word derivation of Sudarshana:
“sukhena drishyate asro iti”!
shobhanam darshanamyasya iti va!
The word meaning of sudarshana is = the one which is good to look. Means that plant is very beautiful &pleasing to look at.

India, Srilanka, Java, Burma, New Guinea, Indonesia, Malasia, Philipines Island.
In India: Tropical India, Lakhmi pur, Orissa, Chota Nagpur, Bengal, Deccan, Central India, Madhyapradesh.

Therapeutical uses
External uses:
Patra Swarasa used as ear drops for ear infection.
And other ear disorders
Patra Swedana :     Sandhi vaata
Vedana praddhana vikaras
Kalka of kanda:       Heated and used in arsha peeda shanthi
Vidradhi paachana
Patra :  Used as prabhala jantughna
Patra dhooma:  Krimi naashaka  Like mosquitoes
Patra swarasa siddha tila: Used in charma rogas

Oral use:
Paachana samsthana: It is ubhayato bhaga hara,used in visha etc, stages of samshodhana.
Rasa vaha samsthana: Shotha
Twacha: Kustha And Anya rakta vikaras
Taapa karma: Jwara

Author: Dr.B.K.Prashanth M.D (Ayu), Ph.D
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