Charaka Rasa Vimana: 1st Chapter

First Chapter of Charaka Samhitha Vimana Sthana is called Rasa Vimana. It deals with the knowledge of specific attributes of Rasa (taste), diet rules, three things that should not be taken for long periods of time etc. 

अथातो रसविमानं व्याख्यास्यामः||१||
इति ह स्माह भगवानात्रेयः||२||
athāto rasavimānaṃ vyākhyāsyāmaḥ||1||
iti ha smāha bhagavānātreyaḥ||2||
We shall now explore the chapter on the knowledge of specific qualities of Rasa (taste). Thus said Lord Atreya [1-2]

Measurement of Doshas etc: 
इह खलु व्याधीनां निमित्त पूर्वरूपरूपोपशय सङ्ख्या प्राधान्य विधि विकल्प बल काल विशेषाननुप्रविश्यानन्तरं दोष भेषज देश काल बल शरीर साराहार सात्म्य सत्त्व प्रकृतिवयसां मानमवहितमनसा यथावज्ज्ञेयं भवति भिषजा, दोषादि मान ज्ञानायत्तत्वात् क्रियायाः|
न ह्यमानज्ञो दोषादीनां भिषग् व्याधि निग्रह समर्थो भवति|
तस्माद्दोषादिमानज्ञानार्थं विमान स्थानमुपदेक्ष्यामोऽग्निवेश!||३||
iha khalu vyādhīnāṃ nimitta pūrvarūparūpopaśaya saṅkhyā prādhānya vidhi vikalpa bala kāla viśeṣānanupraviśyānantaraṃ doṣa bheṣaja deśa kāla bala śarīra sārāhāra sātmya sattva prakṛtivayasāṃ mānamavahitamanasā yathāvajjñeyaṃ bhavati bhiṣajā, doṣādi māna jñānāyattatvāt kriyāyāḥ|
na hyamānajño doṣādīnāṃ bhiṣag vyādhi nigraha samartho bhavati|
tasmāddoṣādimānajñānārthaṃ vimāna sthānamupadekṣyāmo’gniveśa!||3||

After ascertaining the characteristic features, causes, premonitory symptoms, symptoms, curability, number, dominance, permutation and combination, and temporal strength, the physician should devote himself to a correct appraisal of the measurement and specific characteristics of Doshas, medicines, locality, season, strength, physique, and excellence of Dhatus, diet, homologation, mind, constitution and age.

Treatment of a disease depends upon the knowledge of the specific features of these factors, viz, Doshas etc., in the patient. A physician not acquainted with the specific features of Doshas etc., will not be able to cure the disease properly. Therefore, O! Agnivesha, we shall describe the section on the “Knowledge of Specific Attributes of Doshas Druge” etc. [3]

Qualities and features of tastes: 
तत्रादौ रस द्रव्य दोष विकार प्रभावान् वक्ष्यामः|
रसास्तावत् षट्- मधुराम्ल लवण कटु तिक्त कषायाः|
ते सम्यगुपयुज्यमानाः शरीरं यापयन्ति, मिथ्योपयुज्यमानास्तु खलु दोष प्रकोपायोप कल्पन्ते||४||
tatrādau rasa dravya doṣa vikāra prabhāvān vakṣyāmaḥ|
rasāstāvat ṣaṭ- madhurāmla lavaṇa kaṭu tikta kaṣāyāḥ|
te samyagupayujyamānāḥ śarīraṃ yāpayanti, mithyopayujyamānāstu khalu doṣa prakopāyopa kalpante||4||

In the beginning, we shall describe the specific attributes of Rasa (taste), Dravya (substance), Doshas and Vikara (disease).

There are 6 Rasas (tastes), Viz
Madhura – sweet
Amla – sour
Lavana – Saline
Katu – Pungent
Tikta – bitter and
Kashaya – astringent
When employed properly, they maintain the body and their incorrect utilization result in the vitiation of Doshas [4]

Doshas:
दोषाः पुनस्त्रयो वात पित्त श्लेष्माणः|
ते प्रकृतिभूताः शरीरोपकारका भवन्ति, विकृतिमापन्नास्तु खलु नानाविधैर्विकारैः शरीरमुपतापयन्ति||५||
doṣāḥ punastrayo vāta pitta śleṣmāṇaḥ|
te prakṛtibhūtāḥ śarīropakārakā bhavanti, vikṛtimāpannāstu khalu nānāvidhairvikāraiḥ śarīramupatāpayanti||5||
Doshas are 3, Viz,
Vata, Pitta and Kapha.
During their normal state, they sustain the body. When vitiated, they afflict the body with the various types of diseases. [5]
Six tastes of Ayurveda

Rasas and Doshas their relationship:
तत्र दोषमेकैकं त्रयस्त्रयो रसा जनयन्ति, त्रयस्त्रयश्चोपशमयन्ति|
तद्यथा- कटु तिक्त कषाया वातं जनयन्ति, मधुराम्ल लवणास्त्वेनं शमयन्ति; कट्वम्ल लवणाः पित्तं जनयन्ति, मधुर तिक्त कषायास्त्वेनच्छ्मयन्ति; मधुराम्ल लवणाः श्लेष्माणं जनयन्ति, कटु तिक्त कषायास्त्वेनं शमयन्ति||६||
tatra doṣamekaikaṃ trayastrayo rasā janayanti, trayastrayaścopaśamayanti|
tadyathā- kaṭu tikta kaṣāyā vātaṃ janayanti, madhurāmla lavaṇāstvenaṃ śamayanti; kaṭvamla lavaṇāḥ pittaṃ janayanti, madhura tikta kaṣāyāstvenacchmayanti; madhurāmla lavaṇāḥ śleṣmāṇaṃ janayanti, kaṭu tikta kaṣāyāstvenaṃ śamayanti||6||

One of these Dosha is vitiated by the 3 of the Rasas (tastes) the remaining 3 Rasa alleviate particular Doshas as follows:-
Sweet, sour and salt taste increase Kapha and rest three decrease Kapha.
Pungent, bitter and astringent – increase Vata. The rest three tastes decrease Vata.
Sweet, bitter and astringent tastes decrease Pitta Dosha and sour, salt and pungent tastes increase Kapha Dosha.

रस दोष सन्निपाते तु ये रसा यैर्दोषैः समानगुणाः समानगुण भूयिष्ठा वा भवन्ति ते तानभिवर्धयन्ति, विपरीतगुणा विपरीतगुण भूयिष्ठा वा शमयन्त्यभ्यस्यमाना इति|
एतद्व्यवस्थाहेतोः षट्त्वमुपदिश्यते रसानां परस्परेणासंसृष्टानां, त्रित्वं च दोषाणाम्||७||
rasa doṣa sannipāte tu ye rasā yairdoṣaiḥ samānaguṇāḥ samānaguṇa bhūyiṣṭhā vā bhavanti te tānabhivardhayanti, viparītaguṇā viparītaguṇa bhūyiṣṭhā vā śamayantyabhyasyamānā iti|
etadvyavasthāhetoḥ ṣaṭtvamupadiśyate rasānāṃ paraspareṇāsaṃsṛṣṭānāṃ, tritvaṃ ca doṣāṇām||7||

In the course or interaction between the Rasa (tastes) and Doshas inside the body, Doshas are aggravated by such of the Rasa which are entirely or considerably homologous with them.

On the other hand, Doshas get alleviated by the habitual utilization of the Rasas having contradistinctive properties entirely or considerably. It is with a view to indicating this mode of action that the six Rasa (tastes) and the 3 Doshas are described individually unmixed with each other. [7]

Innumerability of permutations and combinations of Rasas and Doshas:
संसर्ग विकल्प विस्तरो ह्येषामपरिसङ्ख्येयो भवति, विकल्पभेदा परिसङ्ख्येयत्वात्||८||
saṃsarga vikalpa vistaro hyeṣāmaparisaṅkhyeyo bhavati, vikalpabhedā parisaṅkhyeyatvāt||8||
Innumerable are the permutations and combinations of Rasas and Doshas, as the degrees of their combinations are innumerable. [8]

तत्र खल्वनेकरसेषु द्रव्येष्वनेकदोषात्मकेषु च विकारेषु रस दोष प्रभावमेकैकश्येनाभिसमीक्ष्य ततो द्रव्य विकारयोः प्रभावतत्त्वं व्यवस्येत्||९||
tatra khalvanekaraseṣu dravyeṣvanekadoṣātmakeṣu ca vikāreṣu rasa doṣa prabhāvamekaikaśyenābhisamīkṣya tato dravya vikārayoḥ prabhāvatattvaṃ vyavasyet||9||

Substances are composed of many tastes. Similarly diseases are caused by many Doshas. Therefore, the specific manifestations of drugs and diseases can be determined by taking into account the specific attributes of the tastes and determine the attributes of the Rasas (tastes) and Doshas (jointly and severally) [9]
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न त्वेवं खलु सर्वत्र|
न हि विकृति विषम समवेतानां नानात्मकानां परस्परेण चोपहतानामन्यैश्चविकल्पनैर्विकल्पितानामवयवप्रभावानुमानेनैव समुदाय प्रभाव तत्त्वमध्यवसातुं शक्यम्||१०||
na tvevaṃ khalu sarvatra|
na hi vikṛti viṣama samavetānāṃ nānātmakānāṃ paraspareṇa copahatānāmanyaiścavikalpanairvikalpitānāmavayavaprabhāvānumānenaiva samudāya prabhāva tattvamadhyavasātuṃ śakyam||10||

The above statement (in Para- 9) does not hold good in all circumstances. Because of the variations in the curative effects of drugs, affections, of one property of the drug by another and method of their preparation which leads to prevention or irregularity in combination, it is not possible to determine the attributes of a substance having many tastes or the manifestation of a disease caused by many Doshas, simply by taking into account, the attributes of individual tastes and Doshas. [10]

Need for ascertaining the total effect:
तथायुक्ते हि समुदये समुदाय प्रभाव तत्त्वमेवमेवोपलभ्य ततो द्रव्य विकार प्रभाव तत्त्वं व्यवस्येत्||११||
tathāyukte hi samudaye samudāya prabhāva tattvamevamevopalabhya tato dravya vikāra prabhāva tattvaṃ vyavasyet||11||
From that type of combination involving the manifestation of attributes which are contradictory to those normally present in the constituent factor, one should determine the specific attributes of compounds and their after proceed to ascertain the specific attributes/ manifestations of drugs and diseases. [11]

तस्माद्रस प्रभावतश्च द्रव्य प्रभावतश्च दोषप्रभावतश्च विकार प्रभावतश्च तत्त्वमुपदेक्ष्यामः||१२||
tasmādrasa prabhāvataśca dravya prabhāvataśca doṣaprabhāvataśca vikāra prabhāvataśca tattvamupadekṣyāmaḥ||12||
Therefore, we shall explain their specific attributes and manifestations on the daises of the specific attributes of tastes, specific attributes of drugs, specific manifestations of Doshas and diseases. [12]

Specific Attributes of Rasas:
तत्रैष रस प्रभाव उपदिष्टो भवति| द्रव्य प्रभावं पुनरुपदेक्ष्यामः|
tatraiṣa rasa prabhāva upadiṣṭo bhavati| dravya prabhāvaṃ punarupadekṣyāmaḥ|
Specific attributes of taste are described above (in Paras 4- 12) in brief. Specific attributes of drugs (already described in brief) will be further elaborated.

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तैल सर्पिर्मधूनि वात पित्त श्लेष्म प्रशमनार्थानि द्रव्याणि भवन्ति||१३||
taila sarpirmadhūni vāta pitta śleṣma praśamanārthāni dravyāṇi bhavanti||13||
Oil, ghee and honey are alleviators of Vata, pitta and Kapha respectively.

तत्र तैलं स्नेहौष्ण्य गौरवोपपन्नत्वाद्वातं जयति सततमभ्यस्यमानं; वातो हि रौक्ष्य शैत्य लाघवोपपन्नो विरुद्धगुणो भवति, विरुद्ध गुण सन्निपाते हि भूयसाऽल्पमवजीयते, तस्मात्तैलं वातं जयति सततमभ्यस्यमानम्|
tatra tailaṃ snehauṣṇya gauravopapannatvādvātaṃ jayati satatamabhyasyamānaṃ; vāto hi raukṣya śaitya lāghavopapanno viruddhaguṇo bhavati, viruddha guṇa sannipāte hi bhūyasā’lpamavajīyate, tasmāttailaṃ vātaṃ jayati satatamabhyasyamānam|

Oil for Vata Dosha balance:
Continuous use of oil alleviates Vata, as oil is unctuous, hot and heavy, vata being dry, cold and light is of the opposite nature. When there is the interaction between substances having mutually opposite qualities, the stronger dominates over the weaker; therefore continuous use of oil alleviates Vata. Read related: sesame oil benefits

सर्पिः खल्वेवमेव पित्तं जयति, माधुर्याच्छैत्यान्मन्दत्वाच्च; पित्तं ह्यमधुरमुष्णं तीक्ष्णं च|
sarpiḥ khalvevameva pittaṃ jayati, mādhuryācchaityānmandatvācca; pittaṃ hyamadhuramuṣṇaṃ tīkṣṇaṃ ca|

Continuous use of oil alleviates Vata, as oil is unctuous, hot and heavy, vata being dry, cold and light is of the opposite nature. When there is the interaction between substances having mutually opposite qualities, the stronger dominates over the weaker; therefore continuous use of oil alleviates Vata.

मधु च श्लेष्माणं जयति, रौक्ष्यात्तैक्ष्ण्यात् कषायत्वाच्च; श्लेष्मा हि स्निग्धो मन्दो मधुरश्च |
madhu ca śleṣmāṇaṃ jayati, raukṣyāttaikṣṇyāt kaṣāyatvācca; śleṣmā hi snigdho mando madhuraśca |
Similarly due to sweet taste, coldness and dullness, ghee alleviates Pitta; Pitta is pungent (other than sweet) in taste, hot and sharp.
Honey alleviates Kapha as it is dry, sharp and pungent in taste; Kapha is unctuous, dull and sweet.

यच्चान्यदपि किञ्चिद्द्रव्यमेवं वातपित्तकफेभ्यो गुणतो विपरीतं स्यात्तच्चैताञ्जयत्यभ्यस्यमानम्||१४||
yaccānyadapi kiñciddravyamevaṃ vātapittakaphebhyo guṇato viparītaṃ syāttaccaitāñjayatyabhyasyamānam||14||
Other substances having attributes opposite to those of the respective Dosha (i. e Vata, Pitta and kapha) also alleviate them when continuously used. [13-14]

Three Substances not to be used in excess:
अथ खलु त्रीणि द्रव्याणि नात्युपयुञ्जीताधिकमन्येभ्यो द्रव्येभ्यः; तद्यथा- पिप्पली, क्षारः, लवणमिति||१५||
atha khalu trīṇi dravyāṇi nātyupayuñjītādhikamanyebhyo dravyebhyaḥ; tadyathā- pippalī, kṣāraḥ, lavaṇamiti||15||
Of all the substances, one should not resort too much to the 3, Viz.
Pippali – Long pepper fruit – Piper longum.
Kshara – Alkali and
Lavana – Salt. [15]

Justification for not using Pippali in excess:
पिप्पल्यो हि कटुकाः सत्यो मधुर विपाका गुर्व्योनात्यर्थं स्निग्धोष्णाः प्रक्लेदिन्यो भेषजाभिमताश्चताः सद्यः; शुभाशुभकारिण्यो भवन्ति; आपातभद्राः, प्रयोग समसाद्गुण्यात्; दोषसञ्चयानुबन्धाः;- सततमुपयुज्यमाना हि गुरु प्रक्लेदित्वाच्छ्लेष्माणमुत्क्लेशयन्ति, औष्ण्यात् पित्तं, न च वात प्रशमनायोपकल्पन्तेऽल्पस्नेहोष्णभावात्; योगवाहिन्यस्तु खलु भवन्ति; तस्मात् पिप्पलीर्नात्युपयुञ्जीत||१६||
pippalyo hi kaṭukāḥ satyo madhura vipākā gurvyonātyarthaṃ snigdhoṣṇāḥ prakledinyo bheṣajābhimatāścatāḥ sadyaḥ; śubhāśubhakāriṇyo bhavanti; āpātabhadrāḥ, prayoga samasādguṇyāt; doṣasañcayānubandhāḥ;- satatamupayujyamānā hi guru prakleditvācchleṣmāṇamutkleśayanti, auṣṇyāt pittaṃ, na ca vāta praśamanāyopakalpante’lpasnehoṣṇabhāvāt; yogavāhinyastu khalu bhavanti; tasmāt pippalīrnātyupayuñjīta||16||

long pepper plant

Pippali in spite of their pungent taste are:
Madhura vipaka – sweet in Vipaka
Guru – heavy
Atyartham snigdha ushna – neither too unctuous nor too hot,
Prakledinyo – deliquescent and
bheṣajābhimatāścatāḥ sadyaḥ – useful as medicine when administrated afresh.
śubhāśubhakāriṇyo bhavanti – Depending upon the frequency of use they are both useful and harmful.
prayoga samasādguṇyāt; doṣasañcayānubandhāḥ – When properly used (in small dose for a short period) they produce good results instantaneously, otherwise, they are responsible for the accumulation of Doshas.
satatamupayujyamānā hi guru prakleditvācchleṣmāṇamutkleśayanti – When continuously used in large dose, they aggravated Pitta owing to their hot property.
auṣṇyāt pittaṃ, na ca vāta praśamanāyopakalpante’lpasnehoṣṇabhāvāt – They do not alleviate Vata because they are not adequately unctuous or hot.
Therefore, Pippali –Piper longum is not to be used in excess. [16]
Read related: long pepper benefits, side effects

Justification for not using Kshara in excess:
क्षारः पुनरौष्ण्यतैक्ष्णय लाघवोपपन्नः क्लेदयत्यादौ पश्चाद्विशोषयति, स पचन दहन भेदनार्थमुपयुज्यते; सोऽतिप्रयुज्यमानः केशाक्षि हृदयपुंस्त्वोपघातकरः सम्पद्यते|
ये ह्येनं ग्राम नगर निगम जनपदाः सततमुपयुञ्जते त आन्ध्यषाण्ढ्य खालित्य पालित्यभाजो हृदयापकर्तिनश्च भवन्ति, तद्यथा- प्राच्याश्चीनाश्च; तस्मात् क्षारं नात्युपयुञ्जीत||१७||
kṣāraḥ punarauṣṇyataikṣṇaya lāghavopapannaḥ kledayatyādau paścādviśoṣayati, sa pacana dahana bhedanārthamupayujyate; so’tiprayujyamānaḥ keśākṣi hṛdayapuṃstvopaghātakaraḥ sampadyate|
ye hyenaṃ grāma nagara nigama janapadāḥ satatamupayuñjate ta āndhyaṣāṇḍhya khālitya pālityabhājo hṛdayāpakartinaśca bhavanti, tadyathā- prācyāścīnāśca; tasmāt kṣāraṃ nātyupayuñjīta||17||
Alkali is associated with these properties
Ushna – hot
Taikshna – sharp and
Laghu – light.

In the beginning it works as a
Kledayati – deliquescent and
Vishoshana – afterwards as a desiccant.

It is used for
Pachana – suppuration
Dahana – cauterization and
Bhedana – penetration.

Excessive use of Kshara – 
keśākṣi hṛdayapuṃstvopaghātakaraḥ sampadyate – injurious effects on hair, eyes, heart and variety.
ye hyenaṃ grāma nagara nigama janapadāḥ satatamupayuñjate ta āndhyaṣāṇḍhya khālitya pālityabhājo hṛdayāpakartinaśca bhavanti – People of villages, towns, cities and countries, where this is continuously used in excess, suffer from blindness, impotency, baldness, grey hair and heart diseases characterized by sawing pain.
They are the people of the Eastern side and Chinese. Therefore, alkali should not be used in excess. [17]

Justification for not using salt in excess:
लवणं पुनरौष्ण्यतैक्ष्ण्योपपन्नम्, अनतिगुरु, अनतिस्निग्धम्, उपक्लेदि, विस्रंसनसमर्थम्, अन्नद्रव्यरुचिकरम्, आपातभद्रं प्रयोग समसाद्गुण्यात्, दोष सञ्चयानुबन्धं, तद्रोचनपाचनोपक्लेदन विस्रंसनार्थमुपयुज्यते|
तदत्यर्थमुपयुज्यमानं ग्लानि शैथिल्य दौर्बल्याभिनिर्वृत्तिकरं शरीरस्य भवति|
ये ह्येनद्ग्राम नगर निगम जनपदाः सततमुपयुञ्जते, ते भूयिष्ठं ग्लास्नवः शिथिल मांस शोणिता अपरिक्लेशसहाश्च भवन्ति|
तद्यथा- बाह्लीक सौराष्ट्रिक सैन्धव सौवीरकाः; ते हि पयसाऽपि सह लवणमश्नन्ति|
येऽपीह भूमेरत्यूषरा देशास्तेष्वोषधि वीरुद्वनस्पतिवानस्पत्या न जायन्तेऽल्पतेजसो वा भवन्ति, लवणोपहतत्वात्|
तस्माल्लवणं नात्युपयुञ्जीत|
ये ह्यतिलवण सात्म्याः पुरुषास्तेषामपि खालित्य पालित्यानि वलयश्चाकाले भवन्ति||१८||
lavaṇaṃ punarauṣṇyataikṣṇyopapannam, anatiguru, anatisnigdham, upakledi, visraṃsanasamartham, annadravyarucikaram, āpātabhadraṃ prayoga samasādguṇyāt, doṣa sañcayānubandhaṃ, tadrocanapācanopakledana visraṃsanārthamupayujyate|
tadatyarthamupayujyamānaṃ glāni śaithilya daurbalyābhinirvṛttikaraṃ śarīrasya bhavati|
ye hyenadgrāma nagara nigama janapadāḥ satatamupayuñjate, te bhūyiṣṭhaṃ glāsnavaḥ śithila māṃsa śoṇitā aparikleśasahāśca bhavanti|
tadyathā- bāhlīka saurāṣṭrika saindhava sauvīrakāḥ; te hi payasā’pi saha lavaṇamaśnanti|
ye’pīha bhūmeratyūṣarā deśāsteṣvoṣadhivīrudvanaspativānaspatyā na jāyante’lpatejaso vā bhavanti, lavaṇopahatatvāt|
tasmāllavaṇaṃ nātyupayuñjīta|
ye hyatilavaṇa sātmyāḥ puruṣāsteṣāmapi khālitya pālityāni valayaścākāle bhavanti||18||

Properties of salt:
lavaṇaṃ punarauṣṇyataikṣṇyopapannam – Salt is associated with hot and sharp properties.
anatiguru, anatisnigdham – It is neither very heavy nor very unctuous.
upakledi, visraṃsanasamartham – It is deliquescent and is capable of producing laxative effect.
Annadravyarucikaram – It makes food delicious.
āpātabhadraṃ prayoga samasādguṇyāt – When properly used, it produces good results.
tadrocanapācanopakledana visraṃsanārthamupayujyate – It is however it is used as an appetizer, digestive, deliquescent and laxative.
tadatyarthamupayujyamānaṃ glāni śaithilya daurbalyābhinirvṛttikaraṃ śarīrasya bhavati – When excessively used, it produces fatigueless, lassitude and weakness in the body.
ye hyenadgrāma nagara nigama janapadāḥ satatamupayuñjate te bhūyiṣṭhaṃ glāsnavaḥ śithila māṃsa śoṇitā aparikleśasahāśca bhavanti – People of villages, towns, cities and countries, where it is continuously used in large quantity, are mostly languid and of loose flesh and blood, and they are unable to stand hardships.
bāhlīka saurāṣṭrika saindhava sauvīrakāḥ; – People of Bahilka (balkh), Saurastra, Sindh and Sauvira (people inhabiting at a district in the neighborhood of Indus), belong to his category.
te hi payasā’pi saha lavaṇamaśnanti – They take salt even with milk.
ye’pīha bhūmeratyūṣarā deśāsteṣvoṣadhivīrudvanaspativānaspatyā na jāyante’lpatejaso vā bhavanti – Even in the localities having saline soil, herbs, creepers, Vanaspatis (trees having fruits without flowers) and Vanaspatyas (trees having fruits from flowers) do not grow at all or grow sluggishly because of the inhibiting effect of the salt in the soil.
lavaṇopahatatvāt – Therefore, salt is used in excess.
ye hyatilavaṇa sātmyāḥ puruṣāsteṣāmapi khālitya pālityāni valayaścākāle bhavanti – People who are accustomed to the excessive use of salt, suffer from premature baldness, grey hair and wrinkles in the skin. [18]

Withdrawing from these habits gradually:
तस्मात्तेषां तत्सात्म्यतः क्रमेणापगमनं श्रेयः|
सात्म्यमपि हि क्रमेणोपनिवर्त्यमानम दोषमल्पदोषं वा भवति||१९||
tasmātteṣāṃ tatsātmyataḥ krameṇāpagamanaṃ śreyaḥ|
sātmyamapi hi krameṇopanivartyamānama doṣamalpadoṣaṃ vā bhavati||19||
Therefore, people habituated with the intake of alkali and salt continuously in large quantity should give up this habit slowly (following the principle laid down in Sutra 7: 36-37). Even if the body be accustomed to these habits, the slow discontinuance of these habits does not have any harmful effect or even if it has, the harm caused is too insignificant. [19]

Satmya:
सात्म्यं नाम तद् यदात्मन्युपशेते; सात्म्यार्थो ह्युपशयार्थः|
तत्त्रिविधं प्रवरावरमध्यविभागेन; सप्त विधं तु रसैकैकत्वेन सर्वरसोपयोगाच्च|
तत्र सर्वरसं प्रवरम्, अवरमेकरसं, मध्यं तु प्रवरावरमध्यस्थम्|
sātmyaṃ nāma tad yadātmanyupaśete; sātmyārtho hyupaśayārthaḥ|
tattrividhaṃ pravarāvaramadhyavibhāgena; sapta vidhaṃ tu rasaikaikatvena sarvarasopayogācca|
tatra sarvarasaṃ pravaram, avaramekarasaṃ, madhyaṃ tu pravarāvaramadhyastham|

Substance conducive to an individual is called “Satmya” and the use of such substances results in the well- being of that individual.
This is of 3 types, viz.
Pravara – Superior
Avara – inferior and
Madhyama – mediocre.

तत्रावरमध्याभ्यां सात्म्याभ्यां क्रमेणैव प्रवरमुपपादयेत् सात्म्यम्|
सर्वरसमपि च सात्म्यमुपपन्नः प्रकृत्याद्युपयोक्त्रष्टमानि सर्वाण्याहार विधि विशेषायतनान्यभिसमीक्ष्य हितमेवानुरुध्येत||२०||
tatrāvaramadhyābhyāṃ sātmyābhyāṃ krameṇaiva pravaramupapādayet sātmyam|
sarvarasamapi ca sātmyamupapannaḥ prakṛtyādyupayoktraṣṭamāni sarvāṇyāhāra vidhi viśeṣāyatanānyabhisamīkṣya hitamevānurudhyeta||20||

According to another mode of classification, it is of 7 types, depending upon the administration of individual Rasas or tastes (six types) and the use of Rasas or Tastes jointly (seventh type).
Use of all the Rasas is of the superior type of Satmya use of only one Rasa is of an inferior type and in between the superior and the inferior types is the mediocre type of Satmya.

The inferior and mediocre types are slowly changed over to the superior type of Satmya. If he is used to the superior type of Satmya, i.e the habitual intake of substances having all the 6 tastes, the individual should adopt only the wholesome diet, taking into account the eight factors beginning with Prakrti (the nature of the food) and ending with Upayokta (the wholesomeness to the individual who takes it) which determine the utility or otherwise of a particular type of food, [20]

Ashta Ahara Vidhi Vishesha Ayatana – Eight factors determining the utility of food:
तत्र खल्विमान्यष्टावाहार विधि विशेषायतनानि भवन्ति; तद्यथा- प्रकृति करण संयोगराशिदेशकालोपयोग संस्थोपयोक्त्रष्टमानि (भवन्ति)||२१||
tatra khalvimānyaṣṭāvāhāra vidhi viśeṣāyatanāni bhavanti; tadyathā- prakṛti karaṇa saṃyogarāśideśakālopayoga saṃsthopayoktraṣṭamāni (bhavanti)||21||

The 8 factors determine the utility or otherwise of various types of food are:
Prakruti (nature of the food articles)
Karana (method of their processing)
Samyoga (combination)
Rashi (quantity)
Desha (habit)
Kala (time i.e stage of the disease or the state of the individual)
Upayoga Samstha (rules governing the intake of food) and
Upayokta (wholesomeness to the individual who takes it [21]

Prakruti – Nature of the substance:
तत्र प्रकृतिरुच्यते स्वभावो यः, स पुनराहारौषध द्रव्याणां स्वाभाविको गुर्वादिगुणयोगः; तद्यथा माषमुद्गयोः, शूकरैणयोश्च (१)|२२|
tatra prakṛtirucyate svabhāvo yaḥ, sa punarāhārauṣadha dravyāṇāṃ svābhāviko gurvādiguṇayogaḥ; tadyathā māṣamudgayoḥ, śūkaraiṇayośca (1)|22|

Prakrti indicates the nature of the substance, i.e inherent attributes (heaviness etc) of diets and drugs e.g Masha (phaseolus Radiatus Linn) is heavy and mudga (Phaseolus Mungo Linn) is light and meat of Sukara (boar) is heavy and that of Ena (deer) is light. [22-1]

2. Karana – Processing of the substances:
करणं पुनः स्वाभाविकानां द्रव्याणामभि संस्कारः|
संस्कारो हि गुणान्तराधानमुच्यते|
ते गुणास्तोयाग्नि सन्निकर्ष शौच मन्थन देश कालवासनभावनादिभिः
काल प्रकर्षभाजनादिभिश्चाधीयन्ते (२)|२२|
karaṇaṃ punaḥ svābhāvikānāṃ dravyāṇāmabhi saṃskāraḥ|
saṃskāro hi guṇāntarādhānamucyate|
te guṇāstoyāgni sannikarṣa śauca manthana deśa kālavāsanabhāvanādibhiḥ
kāla prakarṣabhājanādibhiścādhīyante (2)|22|
Karna means the processing of the (inherent attributes of) substances. Processing results in the transformation of the inherent attributes of substances.
Transformation of the attributes is effected by dilution, application of heat, cleansing, churning, storing, maturing, flavoring, impregnation, preservation, container etc. [22-II]

3. Samyoga – Combination of substances:
संयोगः पुनर्द्वयोर्बहूनां वा द्रव्याणां संहतीभावः, स विशेषमारभते, यं पुनर्नैकैकशो द्रव्याण्यारभन्ते; तद्यथा- मधुसर्पिषोः, मधुमत्स्यपयसां च संयोगः (३)|२२|
saṃyogaḥ punardvayorbahūnāṃ vā dravyāṇāṃ saṃhatībhāvaḥ, sa viśeṣamārabhate, yaṃ punarnaikaikaśo dravyāṇyārabhante; tadyathā- madhusarpiṣoḥ, madhumatsyapayasāṃ ca saṃyogaḥ (3)|22|
Samyoga is the combination of two or more substances. This results in the manifestation of specific attributes which cannot be manifested by individual substances e. G combination of honey and ghee or honey, fish and milk. [22- III]

4. Rashi – Quantum of substance:
राशिस्तु सर्वग्रह परिग्रहौ मात्रामात्रफल विनिश्चयार्थः|
तत्र सर्वस्याहारस्य प्रमाण ग्रहणमेक पिण्डेन सर्वग्रहः, परिग्रहः पुनः प्रमाण ग्रहणमेकैकश्येनाहारद्रव्याणाम्|
सर्वस्य हि ग्रहः सर्वग्रहः, सर्वतश्च ग्रहः परिग्रह उच्यते (४)|२२|
rāśistu sarvagraha parigrahau mātrāmātraphala viniścayārthaḥ|
tatra sarvasyāhārasya pramāṇa grahaṇameka piṇḍena sarvagrahaḥ, parigrahaḥ punaḥ pramāṇa grahaṇamekaikaśyenāhāradravyāṇām|
sarvasya hi grahaḥ sarvagrahaḥ, sarvataśca grahaḥ parigraha ucyate (4)|22|

Rashi is the quantum of total (Sarvagraha) or individual (parigraha) substances which determines which determines the results of their administration in proper and improper dosage.

The quantity of food taken in its entirety is “Sarvagraha “and the quantity of each of its ingredients is “Parigraha”.
Quantity of all things involved is Sarvagraha and that of each and everything individually is Parigraha [22-IV]

5. Desha – Habitat of Substance:
देशः पुनः स्थानं; स द्रव्याणामुत्पत्तिप्रचारौ देश सात्म्यं चाचष्टे (५)|२२|
deśaḥ punaḥ sthānaṃ; sa dravyāṇāmutpattipracārau deśa sātmyaṃ cācaṣṭe (5)|22|
Desha relates to the habitat. It determines attributes due to procreation (growth) or movement of substance in a particular locality or their acclimatization to that region. [22- V]

6. Kala – Time:
कालो हि नित्यगश्चावस्थिकश्च; तत्रावस्थिको विकारमपेक्षते, नित्यगस्तु ऋतुसात्म्यापेक्षः (६)|२२|
kālo hi nityagaścāvasthikaśca; tatrāvasthiko vikāramapekṣate, nityagastu ṛtusātmyāpekṣaḥ (6)|22|
Kala stands for both the time in the form of day and night and the states of the individual, (viz. Condition of health and age). The latter is relevant to the disease (e.g manifestation of diseases due to Kapha during childhood and fever etc). Due to dietetic errors) whereas the former for the determination of the wholesomeness to different types of seasons. [22- VI]

7. Upayoga Samstha – Dietetic rules:
उपयोग संस्था तूपयोगनियमः; स जीर्ण लक्षणापेक्षः (७)|२२|
upayoga saṃsthā tūpayoganiyamaḥ; sa jīrṇa lakṣaṇāpekṣaḥ (7)|22|
Upayoga samstha stands for the dietetic rules. They are for the most part dependent on the symptoms of digestion. [22- VII]

8. Upayokta – Habit of the individual:
उपयोक्ता पुनर्यस्तमाहारमुपयुङ्क्ते, यदायत्तमोक सात्म्यम्|
इत्यष्टावाहार विधि विशेषायतनानि व्याख्यातानि भवन्ति||२२||
upayoktā punaryastamāhāramupayuṅkte, yadāyattamoka sātmyam|
ityaṣṭāvāhāra vidhi viśeṣāyatanāni vyākhyātāni bhavanti||22||
Upayokta is he who takes food. He is, in the main, responsible for the wholesomeness by the habitual intake of things (Okasatmya).
Thus the 8 factors which determine the utility or otherwise of various types of food are explained. [22]

एषां विशेषाः शुभाशुभफलाः परस्परोपकारका भवन्ति; तान् बुभुत्सेत, बुद्ध्वा च हितेप्सुरेव स्यात्; नच मोहात् प्रमादाद्वा प्रियमहितमसुखोदर्कमुपसेव्यमाहारजातमन्यद्वा किञ्चित्||२३||
eṣāṃ viśeṣāḥ śubhāśubhaphalāḥ parasparopakārakā bhavanti; tān bubhutseta, buddhvā ca hitepsureva syāt; naca mohāt pramādādvā priyamahitamasukhodarkamupasevyamāhārajātamanyadvā kiñcit||23||
These 8 factors (Ashta Vidhi Ahara Vishesha Ayatana) are associated especially with useful and harmful effects and they are conditioned by one another. One should try to understand them and after understanding, he should resort to useful things alone.

Neither due to ignorance nor intentionally, one should resort to such food articles or other things (drugs, regimens etc) as are instantaneously pleasing but harmful in the long run leading to unhappy consequences. [23]

healthy eatingHealthy Rules for taking food:
तत्रेदमाहार विधिविधानमरोगाणामातुराणां चापि केषाञ्चित् काले प्रकृत्यैव हिततमं भुञ्जानानां भवति- उष्णं, स्निग्धं, मात्रावत्, जीर्णे वीर्याविरुद्धम्, इष्टे देशे, इष्टसर्वोपकरणं, नातिद्रुतं, नातिविलम्बितम्, अजल्पन्, अहसन्, तन्मना भुञ्जीत, आत्मानमभि समीक्ष्य सम्यक्||२४||
tatredamāhāra vidhividhānamarogāṇāmāturāṇāṃ cāpi keṣāñcit kāle prakṛtyaiva hitatamaṃ bhuñjānānāṃ bhavati- uṣṇaṃ, snigdhaṃ, mātrāvat, jīrṇe vīryāviruddham, iṣṭe deśe, iṣṭasarvopakaraṇaṃ, nātidrutaṃ, nātivilambitam, ajalpan, ahasan, tanmanā bhuñjīta, ātmānamabhi samīkṣya samyak||24||
Healthy individuals as well as (some of the) patients should observe the following, even while using such of the food articles as are most wholesome by nature:
One should eat only that food in proper quantity which is hot, unctuous and
not contradictory in potency and that too, after the digestion of the previous meal.
Food is taken in proper place equipped with all the accessories, without talking and laughing, with concentration of mind and paying due regard to oneself. [24]

Warm food benefits: 
तस्य साद्गुण्यमुपदेक्ष्यामः- उष्णमश्नीयात्; उष्णं हि भुज्यमानं स्वदते, भुक्तं चाग्निमौदर्यमुदीरयति, क्षिप्रं जरां गच्छति, वातमनुलोमयति, श्लेष्माणं च परिह्राससयति; तस्मादुष्णमश्नीयात् (१)|२५|
tasya sādguṇyamupadekṣyāmaḥ- uṣṇamaśnīyāt; uṣṇaṃ hi bhujyamānaṃ svadate, bhuktaṃ cāgnimaudaryamudīrayati, kṣipraṃ jarāṃ gacchati, vātamanulomayati, śleṣmāṇaṃ ca parihrāsasayati; tasmāduṣṇamaśnīyāt (1)|25|
Now we shall explain the utility of food articles. One should take warm food. When taken warm, it is delicious; after intake, it provokes the factors (enzymes) in the abdomen responsible for digestion; it provokes digestion factors; it gets digested quickly and helps in the downward passage of vata (wind) and detachment of Kapha. Therefore, one should take warm food. [25- I]

Unctuous (oily) food: 
स्निग्धमश्नीयात्; स्निग्धं हि भुज्यमानं स्वदते, भुक्तं चानुदीर्णमग्निमुदीरयति, क्षिप्रं जरां गच्छति, वातमनुलोमयति, शरीरमुपचिनोति, दृढीकरोतीन्द्रियाणि, बलाभिवृद्धिमुपजनयति, वर्णप्रसादं चाभिनिर्वर्तयति; तस्मात् स्निग्धमश्नीयात् (२)|२५|
snigdhamaśnīyāt; snigdhaṃ hi bhujyamānaṃ svadate, bhuktaṃ cānudīrṇamagnimudīrayati, kṣipraṃ jarāṃ gacchati, vātamanulomayati, śarīramupacinoti, dṛḍhīkarotīndriyāṇi, balābhivṛddhimupajanayati, varṇaprasādaṃ cābhinirvartayati; tasmāt snigdhamaśnīyāt (2)|25|

One should take unctuous food; unctuous food is delicious, after intake, it provokes the subdued power of digestion; it gets digested quickly; it helps in the downward movement of Vata (wind) it increases the plumpness of the body, strengthens of complexion. Hence one should take unctuous food. [25 II]

Food in proper quantity:
मात्रावदश्नीयात्; मात्रावद्धि भुक्तं वात पित्त कफानपीडयदायुरेव विवर्धयति केवलं, सुखं गुदमनुपर्येति, न चोष्माणमुपहन्ति, अव्यथं च परिपाकमेति; तस्मान्मात्रावदश्नीयात् (३)|२५|
mātrāvadaśnīyāt; mātrāvaddhi bhuktaṃ vāta pitta kaphānapīḍayadāyureva vivardhayati kevalaṃ, sukhaṃ gudamanuparyeti, na coṣmāṇamupahanti, avyathaṃ ca paripākameti; tasmānmātrāvadaśnīyāt (3)|25|
One should take food in proper quantity. When taken in proper quantity, it promotes longevity in its entirety without afflicting vata, Pitta and Kapha; it easily passes down to the rectum; it does not impair the power of digestion and it gets disgusted without any difficulty. [25 – III]

Intake after digestion of previous meal:
जीर्णेऽश्नीयात्; अजीर्णे हि भुञ्जानस्याभ्यवहृतमाहारजातं पूर्वस्याहारस्य रसमपरिणतमुत्तरेणाहाररसेनोपसृजत् सर्वान् दोषान् प्रकोपयत्याशु, जीर्णे तु भुञ्जानस्य स्वस्थानस्थेषु दोषेष्वग्नौ चोदीर्णे जातायां च बुभुक्षायां विवृतेषु च स्रोतसां मुखेषु विशुद्धे चोद्गारे हृदये विशुद्धे वातानुलोम्ये विसृष्टेषु च वात मूत्र पुरीषवेगेष्वभ्यवहृतमाहारजातं सर्वशरीरधातूनप्रदूषयदायुरेवाभिवर्धयति केवलं; तस्माज्जीर्णेऽश्नीयात् (४)|२५|
jīrṇe’śnīyāt; ajīrṇe hi bhuñjānasyābhyavahṛtamāhārajātaṃ pūrvasyāhārasya rasamapariṇatamuttareṇāhārarasenopasṛjat sarvān doṣān prakopayatyāśu, jīrṇe tu bhuñjānasya svasthānastheṣu doṣeṣvagnau codīrṇe jātāyāṃ ca bubhukṣāyāṃ vivṛteṣu ca srotasāṃ mukheṣu viśuddhe codgāre hṛdaye viśuddhe vātānulomye visṛṣṭeṣu ca vāta mūtra purīṣavegeṣvabhyavahṛtamāhārajātaṃ sarvaśarīradhātūnapradūṣayadāyurevābhivardhayati kevalaṃ; tasmājjīrṇe’śnīyāt (4)|25|

One should take food only when previous meal is digested. If one takes food before the digestion of the previous meal, the digestive product of the previous food, i.e immature Rasa gets mixed up with the product of food taken afterwards, resulting in the provocation of all the Doshas instantaneously.

Signs of proper food digestion:
If food is taken after the digestion of the previous food while the Doshas are in their proper places and Agni (digestive enzymes) is provoked,
There is appetite
The entrances of the channels of circulation are open,
Eructation is purified
There is unimpaired cardiac function
Downward passage of the wind and
Proper manifestation of the urges for voiding of the wind and
Proper manifestation of the urges for voiding flatus urine and stool,
Then the product of food does not vitiate the Dhatus of the body, but on the other hand it promotes longevity in its entirety.
So one should take food only after digestion of the previous meal [25- IV]

(V) Intake of food having no contradictory potencies:
वीर्याविरुद्धमश्नीयात्; अविरुद्धवीर्यमश्नन् हि विरुद्धवीर्याहारजैर्विकारैर्नोपसृज्यते; तस्माद्वीर्याविरुद्धमश्नीयात् (५)|२५|
vīryāviruddhamaśnīyāt; aviruddhavīryamaśnan hi viruddhavīryāhārajairvikārairnopasṛjyate; tasmādvīryāviruddhamaśnīyāt (5)|25|
One should take food having no contradictory potencies. By taking such food one does not get afflicted with such diseases as may arise from the intake of food having mutually contradictory potencies. Therefore, one should take food having no contradictory potencies. [25 – V]

(Vi) Intake in proper place and with all accessories:
इष्टे देशे इष्टसर्वोपकरणं चाश्नीयात्; इष्टे हि देशे भुञ्जानो नानिष्टदेशजैर्मनोविघातकरैर्भावैर्मनोविघातं प्राप्नोति, तथैवेष्टैः सर्वोपकरणैः; तस्मादिष्टे देशे तथेष्टसर्वोपकरणं चाश्नीयात् (६)|२५|
iṣṭe deśe iṣṭasarvopakaraṇaṃ cāśnīyāt; iṣṭe hi deśe bhuñjāno nāniṣṭadeśajairmanovighātakarairbhāvairmanovighātaṃ prāpnoti, tathaiveṣṭaiḥ sarvopakaraṇaiḥ; tasmādiṣṭe deśe tatheṣṭasarvopakaraṇaṃ cāśnīyāt (6)|25|
One should take food in proper equipped with all the accessories. By doing he does not get afflicted with such of the factors as would result in emotional strain which (normally) occurs when one takes his food in improper places without the required accessories. Therefore one should take in proper place equipped with all accessories. [25 VI

(vii) Intake not in hurry:
इष्टे देशे इष्टसर्वोपकरणं चाश्नीयात्; इष्टे हि देशे भुञ्जानो नानिष्टदेशजैर्मनोविघातकरैर्भावैर्मनोविघातं प्राप्नोति, तथैवेष्टैः सर्वोपकरणैः; तस्मादिष्टे देशे तथेष्टसर्वोपकरणं चाश्नीयात् (६)|२५|
iṣṭe deśe iṣṭasarvopakaraṇaṃ cāśnīyāt; iṣṭe hi deśe bhuñjāno nāniṣṭadeśajairmanovighātakarairbhāvairmanovighātaṃ prāpnoti, tathaiveṣṭaiḥ sarvopakaraṇaiḥ; tasmādiṣṭe deśe tatheṣṭasarvopakaraṇaṃ cāśnīyāt (6)|25|
One should not take food too hurriedly. If food is taken too hurriedly it enters into a wrong passage; it does not enter into the stomach properly. In this situation one can never determine the taste of food articles and detect foreign bodies, mixed with them.  [25- VII]

(Viii) Intake not too slow:
नातिविलम्बितमश्नीयात्; अतिविलम्बितं हि भुञ्जानो न तृप्तिमधिगच्छति, बहु भुङ्क्ते, शीतीभवत्याहारजातं, विषमं च पच्यते; तस्मान्नातिविलम्बितमश्नीयात् (८)|२५|
nātivilambitamaśnīyāt; ativilambitaṃ hi bhuñjāno na tṛptimadhigacchati, bahu bhuṅkte, śītībhavatyāhārajātaṃ, viṣamaṃ ca pacyate; tasmānnātivilambitamaśnīyāt (8)|25|
One should not take food very slowly because this will not give satisfaction to the individual. In this situation he would take more than what is required; the food would become cold and there will be irregularity in digestion. Therefore, one should not take food very slowly. [25- VIII]

Intake with concentration:
अजल्पन्नहसन् तन्मना भुञ्जीत; जल्पतो हसतोऽन्यमनसो वा भुञ्जानस्य त एव हि दोषा भवन्ति, य एवातिद्रुतमश्नतः; तस्मादजल्पन्नहसंस्तन्मना भुञ्जीत (९)|२५|
ajalpannahasan tanmanā bhuñjīta; jalpato hasato’nyamanaso vā bhuñjānasya ta eva hi doṣā bhavanti, ya evātidrutamaśnataḥ; tasmādajalpannahasaṃstanmanā bhuñjīta (9)|25|
One should not talk or laugh or be unmindful while taking food. One taking food while talking, laughing or with detracted mind subjects to the same trouble as the one eating too hurriedly. So one should not talk, laugh or be unmindful while taking food. [25- IX]

Intake with self-confidence:
आत्मानमभिसमीक्ष्य भुञ्जीत सम्यक्; इदं ममोपशेते इदं नोपशेत इत्येवं विदितं ह्यस्यात्मन आत्मसात्म्यं भवति; तस्मादात्मानमभिसमीक्ष्य भुञ्जीत सम्यगिति||२५||
ātmānamabhisamīkṣya bhuñjīta samyak; idaṃ mamopaśete idaṃ nopaśeta ityevaṃ viditaṃ hyasyātmana ātmasātmyaṃ bhavati; tasmādātmānamabhisamīkṣya bhuñjīta samyagiti||25||
One should take food in a prescribed manner; with due regard to his own self. The knowledge of the usefulness or otherwise of food articles is the Sine Qua non for self- preservation. So one should take food in a prescribed manner with due regard to his own self. [25]

Thus it is said:-
भवति चात्र-
रसान् द्रव्याणि दोषांश्च विकारांश्च प्रभावतः|
वेद यो देशकालौ च शरीरं च स नो भिषक्||२६||
bhavati cātra-
rasān dravyāṇi doṣāṃśca vikārāṃśca prabhāvataḥ|
veda yo deśakālau ca śarīraṃ ca sa no bhiṣak||26||
He also is a good physician who knows specific nature of Rasas (tastes), drugs, Doshas and diseases as well as habitat time and physical constitution. [26]

To sum up:-
तत्र श्लोकौ-
विमानार्थो रस द्रव्य दोष रोगाः प्रभावतः|
द्रव्याणि नातिसेव्यानि त्रिविधं सात्म्यमेव च||२७||
आहारायतनान्यष्टौ भोज्यसाद्गुण्यमेव च|
विमाने रस सङ्ख्याते सर्वमेतत् प्रकाशितम्||२८||
tatra ślokau-
vimānārtho rasa dravya doṣa rogāḥ prabhāvataḥ|
dravyāṇi nātisevyāni trividhaṃ sātmyameva ca||27||
āhārāyatanānyaṣṭau bhojyasādguṇyameva ca|
vimāne rasa saṅkhyāte sarvametat prakāśitam||28||
The following topics are discussed in this chapter on the “Knowledge of Specific Atributes of Rasas (Rasa vimana): Scope of Vimana, Specific nature of Rasas(tastes), drugs, Doshas and diseases, substances which are not to be used continuously in excess, 3 types of wholesomeness, 8 factors which detritions in which food articles are useful. [27-28]

इत्यग्निवेशकृते तन्त्रे चरक प्रतिसंस्कृते विमान स्थाने रस विमानं नाम प्रथमोऽध्यायः||१||
ityagniveśakṛte tantre caraka pratisaṃskṛte vimāna sthāne rasa vimānaṃ nāma prathamo’dhyāyaḥ||1||
Thus ends the first chapter on the “knowledge of specific Attributes of Rasa (taste)” of the Vimana section of Agniveshas’ work as redacted by Charaka.


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Comments

  1. Satyan Namdhari says:

    Dr. Hebbar,
    What is the meaning of the word: “rugs” in your translation for 3rd shloka above: Measurement of Doshas etc. I see the word “vimana” in the Sanskrit but cannot find any corresponding word in the English translation.

    Thanks,
    Satyan

    • Dr J V Hebbar MD(Ayu) says:

      1. Drugs – medicines.
      There is no particular English meaning for the word Vimana.

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