Lodhra is a very important Ayurvedic herb. It is mainly used in bleeding disorders, diarrhoea and eye disorders. Its reference in Ayurveda are found since the time of Sushruta.
Botanical Name-Symplocos racemosa Roxb
Family –STYRACEAE –SYMPLOCACEAE – Lodhra Kula
Distribution– found in north- east India, Assam and Pegu regions of India.
Majour chemical constituent– Symposide, (-) epifzelechin; loturine, loturidine, colloturine etc.
(Reference: Illustrated Dravyaguna VIjnana, Vol. II, by Dr JLN Shastry)
The bark of the tee yields colloturine, Harman and loturidine. The stem bark contains proanthocyanidin-3-monogluco- furanosides of 7-O- methyl and 4-O- methyl- leucopelargonidin. The whole plant of Lodhra contains glycosides.
Lodhra is a medium sized tree found all over India. The leaves are 3-5 inch in length. The flowers grow in clusters, pale yellow in color. The fruits are purple in color with 2-3 seeds inside. The bark of the tree is thick with brown color.
Lodh tree – medicinal Properties
Rasa(taste) – Kashaya (astringent), Tikta (bitter)
Guna (qualities)- Laghu (lightness), Rooksha (dry)
Veerya – Sheeta – cold potency
Vipaka- Katu – Undergoes pungent taste conversion after digestion.
Effect on Tridosha – Due to its astringent and bitter tastes, it balances Kapha and Pitta.
Part used– Stem bark, flower
Dosage– stem bark power 1-3 grams in divided dose per day;
water decoction (kashayam) 50-100ml in divided dose per day.
Powder of seed: 1 to 5 g
Symplocos racemosa uses –
- The paste of the bark of Symplocos racemosa is applied over the area affected with localized swelling and wound as treatment.
- The paste of the bark of the plant is applied over the eyelids to treat conjunctivitis.
- The decoction prepared from the bark is given in divided dose of 50-60 ml to treat diarrhea and bleeding piles. The decoction constricts the smaller blood vessels and controls bleeding.
- The cold infusion or decoction is given in a dose of 50-60 ml to treat uterine bleeding disorders.
- Cold infusion from the flowers is given in a dose of 30-40 ml to treat cough and fever.
- The paste of the bark is applied to treat itching, rashes and insect bite cases.
- In cases of discharge from ears, the powder of the bark is sprinkled or blown inside the ear to control the condition.
1) Bleeding disorders
External application of lodhra powder acts as haemostatic (Su. Su 14/36)
2) Acne, blemishes, white and black heads:
In acne, paste of lodhra and sphatika should be applied (A. Sam U 37/5)
In pimples, paste of lodhra, dhanyaka and vaca is useful (VM 57/34)
Yes, being an astringent, it can clear the face of blemishes, black and white heads. It can also dry up the acne quickly.
Powder of dhataki and lodhra promotes wound healing (CS Chi 25/67-68)
Lodhra, nyagrodha bud, khadira, triphala and ghrta made into a paste provides looseness and softens the wounds (C Chi 25/110)
Application of fine powder of lodhratwak promotes wound healing (C Chi 13/111)
4) Oral disorders
In dantavesta, after removal of blood, paste of lodhra, pattanga, madhuka and laksa mixed with honey should be applied (C.D.).
In dental caries (Saushira), after blood letting, paste of lodhra, musta and rasanjana mixed with honey should be applied (C.D)
5) For eye disorders:
1. Varthmaroga – After anointing with butter, paste of white lodhra should be applied (AH U 9/11)
2. Sudhasukra – Seka using lodhra potali dipped in tepid water (AH U 11/39)
3. Abhisyanda – White lodhra and Madhuka fried in ghee, powdered finely and softened with breast milk and applied, alleviates conjuctivitis caused by pitta and rakta (AHU 16/16)
4. Sushkakshipaka – White lodhra fried in ghee and powdered finely is kept in a cloth pouch and mixed with hot water. Seka with this water removes pain (AHU 16/32)
5. In daha, Kandu and Sula – Aschyotana with lodhra fried in ghee and mixed with rocksalt, pounded with sour gruel and kept in cloth piece – removes itching, burning and pain (VM 61/26)
6.Sarvakshiroga – Sabara lodhra fried in ghee should be applied on lid as paste (CS Ci 26/233)
7. Aschyotana with putapakwa lodhra wrapped in nimba leaves and mixed with woman’s milk allievates netrarogas due to pitta, rakta and vata (CD 59/11)
6) Vaginal infection, injury, post partum vaginal infection – Powder of tumbi leaves and lodhratwak made into a paste and applied in the vagina (B.N)
7) Skin disorders– Powder of paste of lodhra, dhataki, indrayava, Karanja and jati is useful as a scrub in Kustha (CS Ci 7/95)
8) Lodhra Kwatha should be used as a face wash to remove nilika, mukhasosha, pidaka, vyanga and raktapitta (Su.S).
Classical uses – Abhyantara prayoga
1) Raktapitta – Lodhra is one of the drugs efficacious for checking haemorrhage (CS Ci 4/73-77)
2) Pravahika – Lodhra with curd is useful in dysentery (BP Ci 2/120)
3) Svetapradara – Lodhrakalka taken along with nyagrodha Kwatha is effective (CS Ci 30/115)
4) Chalita Garbha – Lodhra curna, honey and pippalicurna along with milk given in 7th – 8th month of pregnancy alleviates abortive tendency. (H.S)
5) Jwara – The decoction of lodhra, utpala, guduchi, Kamala and sariva or parpata alone mixed with sugar alleviates paittika jwara.
Trushnahara – relieves thirst
Arochakahara – useful in anorexia
Asrajit – useful in bleeding disorders such as bleeding hemorrhoids, menorrhagia etc.
Chakshushya – useful in eye disorders
Jvarahara – useful in fever
Atisarahara – useful in diarrhoea
Shothahara – useful in pain and swelling, inflammatory conditions.
It is extensively used in female gynaecological disorders like heavy periods, white discharge (leucorrhoea) etc.
It is used in many skin diseases involving bleeding, oozing and secretions.
In conjunctivitis, its paste is applied externally over closed eyes.
Ayurvedic medicine with Lodhra ingredient –
Lodhrasavam – used in anemia, bleeding disorders etc.
Arimedadi tailam – used in oil pulling to improve strength and to relieve gum bleeding
Dasamoolarishtam – used in inflammatory condition and in post-delivery care of woman.
Ashotone: Ashotone Tablet is a proprietary Ayurvedic medicine useful in menorrhagia – shortened menstrual cycle and heavy periods. It is also a uterine tonic.
Lodhra sevyadi kashaya choorna: Lodhrasevyadi Kashaya Choornam is a micro-fined powder of respective kashayam. It is used in the treatment of insect bites and other allergic conditions.
Brahamdine tablet: Brahamdine tablet is a proprietary Ayurvedic medicine and acts as an astringent tonic in dysmenorrhea, menorrhagia, leucorrhoea. It also normalizes irregular periods.
Lucap capsule: It is a proprietary Ayurvedic medicine and treats dysmenorrhea and menorrhagia and corrects post-partum disorders.
Mensocare tablet: Mensocare Tablet is a proprietary Ayurvedic medicine that prevents complications associated with menstruation like change in behavior, anxiety, depression, laziness, tiredness, sleeplessness, pain in lower abdomen, lower back, thighs, infrequent and very little menstruation etc.
Research articles about Symplocos racemosa:
Analgesic effect: The formalin induced paw licking and tail flick methods were used to study the anti- inflammatory and analgesic effect of Lodhra. The ethanolic extract of the bark significantly reduced the paw edema in carrageen induced paw of the rat.
Hepato- protective action: The present study aims to evaluate the hepatoprotective activity of ethanol extract of Symplocos racemosa(EESR) bark on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced hepatic damage in rats. The degree of hepatoprotection was measured using serum transaminases (AST and ALT), alkaline phosphatase, bilirubin, albumin, and total protein levels. EESR treatment showed significant dose-dependent restoration of serum enzymes, bilirubin, albumin, total proteins, and antioxidant levels. Improvements in hepato-protection and morphological and histo-pathological changes were also observed in the EESR treated rats.
|Abhayarishta||Arsas||CSCi 14/139 – 143|
|Kanakarishta||Arsas||CSCi 14/160 – 165|
|Hriberadighrta||Arsas||CSCi 14/230 – 233|
|Daryadyavachurn anam||Visarpa||CSCi 21/97|
|Mahaneela taila||Palitya||CSChi 26/263 – 275|
|Pushyanuga Churna||Yoniroga||CSCi 30/90 – 95|
|Mahapadma Tailam||Vatarakta||CSCi 29/110 – 113|
|Khadiradigutika||Dantarogas||CSCi 26/206 – 214|
|Mrutasanjeevana Agada||Visha||CSCi 23/57|
|Amrta Ghrtam||Visha||CSCi 23/246|
|Samangadi Tailam||Vidradhi||Su Chi 2/82-84|
|Bhagnaprasadanaghrtam||Bhagnachikitsa||Su Ci 3/60|
|Dhanwantaraghrtam||Prameha||Su Ci 12/5|
|Gouryadi Ghrta||Dushtavrana||Su Ci 17/10-13|
|Syamadighrta||Nadivrana||Su Ci 17/|
|Lodhrasava||Prameha||AH Ci 12/25|
|Drakshadi phanta||Jwara||AH Ci 1/55-58|
|Kutajavaleha||Arsas||AH Ci 8/109|
|Mustadi churnam||Kushta||AH Ci 19/67|
|Priyangvadi Tailam||Karnapoorana||AH U 18/21|
|Tuthadilepa||Upadamsa||AH U 34/4|
|Samangadi Ghrtam||Dantodbhavajanya Vyadhi||AH U 2/41|
|Jeevanthyadi ghrtam||Thimiram||AH U 13/2-3|
|Gandha Tailam||Bhagnapratishedham||AH U 27/40|
|Dhatakyadi Tailam||Yonivyapat||AH U 34/51|
|Dooshivishari Agadam||Vishachikitsa||AH U 35/39|
|Mandaragada or Gandhamadanaagada||Keetalootadivisha||AH U 37/74|
|Trikantakadyasneha||Prameha||CS Ci 6/38-39|
|Usheeradi Churnam||Raktapittachikitsa||CSCi 4/73|
|Naladadi Lepam||Visarpa||CS Ci 21/77|
|Kampillakadi Tailam||Duivraneeya||CS Ci 25/91|
|Tejohwadi Churna||Dantamoolaroga||CSCi 26/190 – 191|
|Dhatakyadi Taila||Yonivyapat||CSCi 30/78 – 81|
|Kutajaphaladi ghrta||Arsas||CSCi 14/197|
|Yashtyadi Kwatha||Kushta||CSCi 7/131|
|Kushtadi lepa||Kushta||CSCi 7/93|
Lodhra as dusting powder:
Charaka explained Lodhra as one among Avachurnana dravya, along with herbs like Kushta, Musta, Vidanga, Sarjarasa etc. The body of the patient is smeared with sesame oil. Then the body is dusted with the above powder mix. Dusting process is called Avachurnana.
It relieves Kitibha – ringworm, Kandu – pruritus, Pama – keloids, Vicharchika – Eczema. Reference: (Charaka Sutrasthana 5th chapter)
Hindi & Bengali name – Lodhra, Lodha, Lodh
English Name- Symplocos tree or Lodh tree, Symplocos bark
Telugu Name- Lodhuga
Tamil Name- Belli lotai, Velli leti, Vellilathi, Vellilothram
Gujrati Name- Lodhara, Lodhar
Malayam Name- Pachotti
Kannada Name- Pachettu
Assamese name – Mugam
Bengali name – Lodha, Lodhra
Kannada name – Lodhra
Marathi name – Lodha, Lodhra
Punjabi name – Lodhar
Urdu name – Lodh, lodh pattani
According to Engler and Prantl’s classification
Kingdom : Plantae
Division : Spermatophyta
Sub-division : Angiospermae
Class : Dicotyledonae
Sub-class : Metachlamydae
Order : Ebenales
Family : Symplocaceae
Genus : Symplocos
Spices : racemosa Roxb.
Sonitasthapana – group of herbs used in stopping bleeding,
Sandhaneeya – group of herbs used in healing of bone fracture and wounds,
Pureeeha sangrahaniya – group of herbs useful in stopping diarrhoea,
Kashaya skandha – astringent tasting group of herbs.
Susruta– Lodhradi, Nayarodhadi group of herbs.
Vagbhata -Rodhradi, Nyagrodhadi
Sausruti Nighantu : Rodhradi, Nyagrodhadi
Ashtanga Nighantu : Rodhradi, Nyagrodhadi
Dhanwantari Nighantu : Chandanadi Varga
Raja Nighantu : Pippalyadi Varga
Kaiyadeva Nighantu : Aushadhi Varga
Bhava Prakasha : Haritakyadi Varga
Nighantu Adarsha : Rodhradi Varga
Hridayadeepika Nighantu : Tripada Varga
Priya Nighantu : Haritakyadi Varga
Madhava Dravyaguna : Vividhoushadhi Varga
Explanation of Lodhra in Samhitas:
Charaka Samhita mentions Lodhra as an ingredient of sonitasthapana, purishasangrahaniya, sandhaneeya mahakashayas and kashayaskandha. Also, it is mentioned as an ingredient of many formulations in the treatment of raktapitta, kustha, vrana, kasa, amatisara, svetapradara and netraroga.
Susruta has highlighted the effectiveness of lodhra in raktapitta, prameha, and atisara. Lodhra is an ingredient of the combination mentioned for the treatment of sannipatasvayathu.
Vagbhata also has enlisted Lodhra among drugs effective for prameha, raktapitta, netravikaras and atisara. It is also included in the formulation to treat ekangasopha.
Susruta and vagbhata have quoted 2 varieties of Rodhra (Rodhrayugma/Rodhradwaya) viz Rodhra (red variety) and Rodhraka/Svetarodhra (white variety). Vagbhata specifically indicates the white variety in the treatment of eye diseases.
Reference of Lodhra in Nighantu:
1) Sausruta Nighantu and Ashtanga Nighantu:- Described 2 varieties of lodhra with synonyms.
2) Madanadi Nighantu:- The two varieties of lodhra with its synonyms are described. It is said to have chaksusya, atisaraghna properties and considered good in eye and uterine disorders.
3) Dhanwantari Nighantu:- Two varieties namely Shabaraka and Pattikalodhra are mentioned with different synonyms assigned to it in the Chandanadivarga. It is described as having chaksusya, vishaghna, grahi properties.
4) Sodhala Nighantu:- Shodhala describes the various synonyms of both varieties of Lodhra along with their properties.
5) Madhava Dravyaguna:- In Vividhoushadhi varga, shothaghna, chaksusya properties are attributed to Lodhra along with mrdurechana property for sabara Lodhra.
6) Sidhamantra Nighantu:- Lodhra twak and pushpa have been mentioned under kaphapittaghna varga.
7) Hridayadeepika Nighantu:- The mention of two varieties along with their synonyms in Tripada varga.
8) Madanapala Nighantu:- Unlike in other nighantus, where it is considered grahi, lodhra bark is attributed virecaka property while the flower is said to be grahi. Chaksusya, atisaranasana, sophahara properties also have been mentioned.
9) Raja Nighantu:- The two varieties of lodhra along with their synonyms are explained. It is described to be chaksusya, vishahara with vatakapha samaka properties as mentioned among pippalyadi varga dravyas.
10) Kaiyadeva Nighantu:- Here also, Lodhra bark is said to have sara guna while its flower is grahi. Two varieties with synonyms are also explained in the oshadhi varga.
11) Bhavaprakasha Nighantu:- Sothahara, chaksusya, grahi properties with synonyms of two varieties are mentioned in haritakyadi varga.
12) Brihat Nighantu Ratnakara or Saligrama Nighantu:- Description of synonyms of the two varieties of Lodhra, with its properties are mentioned. It is described as having chaksusya, grahi, vishahara and sothahara properties.
13) Nighantu Adarsha:- Mentioned in rodhradi varga with its synonyms and properties. It is mentioned to have sara property and is mrudurechaka apart from being chaksusya and sothahara.
14) Priya Nighantu:- Mentions the use of lodhra puspha to enhance complexion along with the use of the bark as grahi, chaksusya, raktapittahara.
Nayanousadha, Akshibhaisajya – useful in eye disorders involving Pitta and excessive secretion,
Sthula valkala- The bark of the tree is thick
Tilvaka, Tirita, Kansahina, Bhilli, Rodhra,
Sthula Valkala – Its bark is thick and is the used part of Lodhra. ,
Savaraka, Sambara ,Kakakila, Hasti Lodhraka.
Genus: Symplocos racemosa