Hymns In Ayurveda Samhitas For Fever

By Prof. Vd. Rangaprasad Bhat
The samhitas of Ayurveda at certain occasions advice the chanting of mantras in specific conditions of pathologies. Most of the occasions the mantras quoted are from the Vedās and occasionally from tantric granthās. 
To begin with,- in the chapter dealing with the treatment of fever, acārya caraka mentions the following verse, where in a sutra format he mentions the chanting of mantras in controlling the vega of jvara.

“सोमं सानुचरं देवं समातृगणमीश्वरम् ॥३१०॥
पूजयन् प्रयतः शीघ्रं मुच्यते विषमज्वरात् ।
विष्णुंसहस्रमूर्धानं चराचरपतिं विभुम् ॥३११॥
स्तुवन् नामसहस्रेण ज्वरान् सर्वानपोहति ।  – चरकसंहिता । ज्वरचिकित्सितम् अध्याय ।

“somaṃ sānucaraṃ devaṃ samātṛgaṇamīśvaram ||310||
pūjayan prayataḥ śīghraṃ mucyate viṣamajvarāt |
viṣṇuṃsahasramūrdhānaṃ carācarapatiṃ vibhum ||311||
stuvan nāmasahasreṇa jvarān sarvānapohati |  – carakasaṃhitā | jvaracikitsitam adhyāya |
Read related: Analysis Of Effect of Mantras On Health And Nadi

Interpretation:-
After due prayers to soma and īśvara (pārvati) along with the nandi ādi gaṇās (it may be remembered that jvara is caused due to rudra kopa) to appease them, and to get cured of fever – one should  chant the puruṣa sūktaṃ (viṣṇuṃ_sahasramūrdhānaṃ iti “sahasraśīrṣā”- cakrapāṇi) which starts  with the verse – “sahasraśīrṣā ” (Complete transliteration of the above sUktam is provided at the end write up).
Read related: Hymns For Cardiac Ailments, Jaundice, Fever

Charaka further indicates that the chronic and idiopathic jvaras (fever) gets cured when under the treatment,simultaneously  by chanting,  the viṣṇu sahasranāmam (as said in mahābhārata) starting with verses –

” vishwam vishṇur vashatkāro, bhūtha bhavya bhavatprabhuḥ |
bhūtha kṛdh bhūdha bṛdh bhāvo, bhūtātmā bhūta bhāvanaḥ || ”

and ending with the verses.,-

” वनमाली गधी शारन्गी शन्खि छक्रीछ नन्दकी ।
श्रीमान् नारायणो विश्णुर् वासुदेवोभि रक्शथुः ।
स्री वासुदेवोभि रक्शत्योम् नम इति ।”.,
” vanamālee gadhī śārangī śankhi chakrīcha nandakī |
śrīmān nārāyaṇo viśṇur vāsudevobhi rakśathuḥ |
srī vāsudevobhi rakśatyom nama iti |”.,

The fact being, the human sharira is the replica of the universe as is being mentioned by the yoga related scriptures,- helps us to understand that the principles of rudra,soma,viṣṇu,prajāpati,indra,kārtikeya,maruta etc too reside in our body and controls the physiological actions of the sharira to maintain the jiva or praNa in an amicable manner.

The reference, presented henceforth, from carakasaṃhitā – puruṣavicayaśārīram chapter, will  subtantiate the yathā piṇḍam principle –

“tasya puruṣasya pr̥thivī mūrtiḥ – the  mūrtiḥ (form / structure of body) in the microcosm is the representation of the pr̥thivī of macrocosm  ,

āpaḥ klēdaḥ- the  klēdaḥ (moistness and watery elements) in the microcosm is the representation of the āpaḥ (ap mahabhuta) of macrocosm  ,
tējō’bhisantāpaḥ- the  santāpa (warmthness) in the microcosm is the representation of the tējas of macrocosm  ,

vāyuḥ prāṇaḥ – the  prāṇaḥ in the microcosm represents the vāyuḥ of macrocosm  ,
viyat suṣirāṇi – the hollow cavities and tubular structures in the microcosm represents the viyat (ākāśam) of macrocosm,

brahma antarātmā – The  antarātmā in the microcosm represents the brahma of macrocosm,
yathā khalu brāhmī vibhūtirlōkē tathā puruṣē’pyāntarātmikī vibhūtiḥ – as in case of heaven the brahma is all pervading, so is in the case of puruṣa – the  antarātma,

brahmaṇō vibhūtirlōkē prajāpatirantarātmanō – the  prajāpati  located in antarātman in the microcosm represents the brahma residing in the  vibhūtirlōka of macrocosm,

vibhūtiḥ puruṣē sattvaṁ – the  satvam in the microcosm represents the all pervading puruṣa of the macrocosm  ,
yastvindrō lōkē sa puruṣē’haṅkāraḥ – the  ahaṅkāraḥ in the puruṣa  represents the indra (of indraloka) of macrocosm ,

ādityastvādānaṁ – the  ādānaṁ (ādānaṁ  iti grahaṇaṁ = Learning, acquiring, grasping mentally) in the microcosm represents the āditya of macrocosm,
rudrō rōṣaḥ – the rudra (Lord Shiva in Vedic era was referred as rudra) of the macrocosm represents the rōṣaḥ (anger / rage)  within the  microcosm,

sōmaḥ prasādaḥ – the  sōma in the macrocosm represents the prasāda (tranquility / well being ) of microcosm,
vasavaḥ sukham – the  vasavaḥ (the eight vasu demigods namely anala, anila, aoma, ahas, dhārā, dhruva, pratyūṣa and prabhāsa) of the macrocosm represents thesukham (happiness) with in the microcosm,

aśvinau kāntiḥ – the  aśvini twin brothers of the macrocosm represents the kāntiḥ (desire / wishes) with in the  microcosm,
marudutsāhaḥ – the  marut  of the macrocosm represents the utsāha (power/ endurance / energy) within the  microcosm.

Note:- Marut in the vedas are said to be the sons of rudra- and pṛśni- q.v,or the children of heaven or of ocean;and described as armed with golden weapons id est lightnings and thunderbolts, as having iron teeth and roaring like lions, as residing in the north, as riding in golden cars drawn by ruddy horses sometimes called pṛṣatīḥ,

viśvēdēvāḥ sarvēndriyāṇi sarvēndriyārthāśca – the  viśvēdēvāḥ (the great Soul, the Supreme Spirit also as Name of viṣṇu) of the macrocosm represents the sarvēndriyāṇi sarvēndriyārthāśca (five sensory faculties and their objects)  within the  microcosm,

tamō mōhaḥ – thetamas (darkness) of the macrocosm represents the moha (loss of consciousness / deliusion) within the  microcosm,

jyōtirjñānaṁ – the jyōti (the light as the divine principle of life or source of intelligence, intelligence      ) of the macrocosm represents the  jñānaṁ (knowing, becoming acquainted with, knowledge, (especially) the higher knowledge) within the  microcosm ,

yathā lōkasya sargādih tathā puruṣasya garbhādhānaṁ – as in case of universe the sargādi  events happens, so is in the case of puruṣa – there occurs  garbhādhānaṁ and the proceeding events. Note:- sargādi  refers to the emission or creation of matter, primary creation (as opp. to pratisarga-“secondary creation”). And garbhādhānaṁ refers to the period from the conception of the embryo until the period of delivery of the child.,

yathā kr̥tayugamēvaṁ bālyaṁ – as in case of universe the kr̥tayuga period (noun.- the first of the four ages of the world, golden age) of time is present, so is in the case of puruṣa – the bālyaṁ (infancy / childhood) stage of life gets present,

yathā trētā tathā yauvanaṁ – as in case of universe the trētā yuga period (dvitīyaḥ vibhāgaḥ tretāyugasaṃjñakaḥ sa ca satyayugāt anantaraṃ 1296000 varṣaparyantaḥ। tretāyuge śrīrāmaḥ ajāyat – means the second quartet of the ages of the world which follows after surpassing 1296000 years from the satya yuga. It is in this yuga Srīrāma lived.) of time is present, so is in the case of puruṣa – the yauvanaṁ (youth) stage of life gets present,

yathā dvāparastathā sthāviryaṁ – – as in case of universe the dvāparayuga period  (masculine. the age with the number two”, Name of the 3rd of the 4 yuga-s or ages of the world (comprising 2400 years;the yuga-s itself = 2000, and each twilight = 200 years;it is also personified as a god) of time is present, so is in the case of puruṣa – the sthāviryaṁ [old age – (described as commencing at seventy in men and fifty in women, and ending at ninety, after which period a man is called varṣīyas)] stage of life gets present,

yathā kalirēvamāturyaṁ – as in case of universe the kaliyuga period (m.     Name of the last and worst of the four yuga-s or ages, the present age, age of vice etc. (the kali- age contains, inclusive of the two dawns, 1200 years of the gods or 432,000 years of men, and begins the eighteenth of February, 3102 B.C.;at the end of this yuga- the world is to be destroyed) of time is present, so is in the case of puruṣa – the āturyaṁ (diseased state) stage of life gets present,

yathā yugāntastathā maraṇamiti – as in case of universe the yugāntaḥ period (the end of an age or yuga- , destruction of the world) of time occurs, so is in the case of puruṣa – the maraṇam (death) occurs |

evametenānumānenānuktānāmapi lōkapuruṣayōravayavaviśeṣāṇāmagniveśa! sāmānyaṁ vidyāditi – Thus the commonalities between the loka and the puuSha gets deciphered from their vishiShTa attributes.||5||” || – carakasaṃhitā – puruṣavicayaśārīram ||

Like wise Sushruta in sarvabhūtacintāśārīram chapter mentions the inter relationship between  adhibhūtaṁ (the material objects), adhyātmam (belonging to one’s own body), adhidaivatam (the presiding deity in body), where in we understand the presence of brahmā, Iśvaraḥ, candramāḥ, diśaḥ , vāyuḥ, sūrya ,  āpaḥ, pr̥thivī , agniḥ,  indraḥ, viṣṇuḥ, mitraḥ, prajāpati etc in the form of presiding deity over the anga avayavAs (adhidaivata) in maintaining the functions of the body and its parts. The reference quoted above reads as follows –
Verse:- “स्वः स्वश्चैषां विषयोऽधिभूतं; स्वयमध्यात्मम्; अधिदैवतम्- अथ बुद्धेर्ब्रह्मा, अहङ्कारस्येश्वरः, मनसश्चन्द्रमाः, दिशः श्रोत्रस्य, त्वचो वायुः, सूर्यश्चक्षुषः, रसनस्यापः, पृथिवी घ्राणस्य, वाचोऽग्निः, हस्तयोरिन्द्रः, पादयोर्विष्णुः, पायोर्मित्रः, प्रजापतिरुपस्थस्येति” ||७|

Transliteration: “svaḥ svaścaiṣāṁ viṣayō’dhibhūtaṁ; svayamadhyātmam; adhidaivatam- atha buddhērbrahmā, ahaṅkārasyēśvaraḥ, manasaścandramāḥ, diśaḥ śrōtrasya, tvacō vāyuḥ, sūryaścakṣuṣaḥ, rasanasyāpaḥ, pr̥thivī ghrāṇasya, vācō’gniḥ,  hastayōrindraḥ, pādayōrviṣṇuḥ, pāyōrmitraḥ, prajāpatirupasthasyēti” ||7||

The interpretation of the above verse could be understood from the following tabulation.

S.Noadhibhūtaṁ
(the material objects)
adhyātmam
(belonging to one’s own body)
adhidaivatam
(the presiding deity in body)
1Bōddhavyam
(mfn.- to be known or perceived or observed or recognized, perceptible, intelligible etc)
buddhi
(intellect)
brahmā
2ahaṅkartavyam

(adj. to be done by self)

ahaṅkāra
(ego)
Iśvaraḥ
3Mantavyam

( adj. to be thought)

manas
(mind)
candramāḥ
4Śrōtavyam
(adj. to be heard or listened to)
śrōtra
(ears)
diśaḥ
5Sparśanīyam
( adj. to be perceived or felt)
tvacō
(skin)
vāyuḥ
6dr̥śyam

(n. any visible object)

cakṣuṣaḥ
(eyes)
sūrya
7rasanīyam

(adj. to be tasted)

Rasanasya
(tongue)
āpaḥ
8ghrātavyam
(n. to be smelled)
ghrāṇasya
(nose)
pr̥thivī
9vaktavyam
(adj. to be said or spoken)
Vācō
(speech)
agniḥ
10ādātavyam

(adj. to be taken)

hastayōḥ
(hands)
indraḥ
11gantavyam

(adj. to be gone or attained or accomplished)

pādaḥ
(feet)
viṣṇuḥ
12visarjanīyam

(adj. to be sent forth or expelled)

pāyōḥ
(anal region)
mitraḥ
13ānandanīyam
(adj. exhilarating)
upastha
(genitals)
prajāpati

 

Having said that, the mantras when recited within the mind or even chanted through vocal resonation, do have the impact upon the internal microcosmic principles through the reverberations of vibrations caused by the mantras.

It there by helps cleansing, modifying, re energising the energy pattern amongst the major chakras and the minor chakras (aka marma sthalās), which maintain the physiological functions of the body by the governance of the mahAprAna vAyu, which abodes on those chakras (both major and minor).

Thus the effect of chanting the mantras do have impact in the energy pattern of the human body and impeccably has a role in the self healing process, when chanted per se along with the treatment with medicines.

In a way, most of the mantras getting mentioned with the phala (result) of providing health through vyadhi mokṣana as seen in atharvana veda, seems to be on par with auto suggestion of directing the internal microscosmic energies in the form of request to self rectify or get strengthened, there by counteracting the negative state of ill health to bring the physique to a positive state of good health.

Having said that, I would like to end this note of explanation with the wonderful words of Sri Ramana Maharshi – “Deham Nāham Koham Soham”, explaining the quintessence of the spirit in simplified words of puruṣa sūktaṃ.

पुरुष सूक्तं (puruṣa sūktaṃ)
सहस्रशीर्षा पुरुषः । सहस्राक्षः सहस्रपात् ।
स भूमिं विश्वतो वृत्वा । अत्यतिष्ठद्दशाङ्गुलम् ।

पुरुष एवेदग्ं सर्वम् । यद्भूतं यच्च भव्यम् ।
उतामृतत्व स्येशानः । यदन्नेनातिरोहति ॥

एतावानस्य महिमा । अतो ज्यायाग्म्‍श्च पूरुषः ।
पादो‌’स्य विश्वा भूतानि । त्रिपादस्यामृतं दिवि ॥

त्रिपादूर्ध्व उदैत्पुरुषः । पादो‌ऽस्येहा‌ऽऽभवात्पुनः ।
ततो विष्वण्-व्यक्रामत् । साशनानशने अभि ॥

तस्माद्विराडजायत । विराजो अधि पूरुषः ।
स जातो अत्यरिच्यत । पश्चाद्-भूमिमथो पुरः ॥

यत्पुरुषेण हविषा । देवा यज्ञमतन्वत ।
वसन्तो अस्यासीदाज्यम् । ग्रीष्म इध्मश्शरध्धविः ॥

सप्तास्यासन्-परिधयः । त्रिः सप्त समिधः कृताः ।
देवा यद्यज्ञं तन्वानाः । अबध्नन्-पुरुषं पशुम् ॥

तं यज्ञं बर्हिषि प्रौक्षन् । पुरुषं जातमग्रतः ।
तेन देवा अयजन्त । साध्या ऋषयश्च ये ॥

तस्माद्यज्ञात्-सर्वहुतः । सम्भृतं पृषदाज्यम् ।
पशूग्-स्ताग्‍श्चक्रे वायव्यान् । आरण्यान्-ग्राम्याश्च ये ॥

तस्माद्यज्ञात्सर्वहुतः । ऋचः सामानि जज्ञिरे ।
छन्दाग्ंसि जज्ञिरे तस्मात् । यजुस्तस्मादजायत ॥

तस्मादश्वा अजायन्त । ये के चोभयादतः ।
गावो ह जज्ञिरे तस्मात् । तस्माज्जाता अजावयः ॥

यत्पुरुषं व्यदधुः । कतिथा व्यकल्पयन्
मुखं किमस्य कौ बाहू । कावूरू पादावुच्येते ॥

ब्राह्मण्ऽस्य मुखमासीत् । बाहू राजन्यः कृतः ।
ऊरू तदस्य यद्वैश्यः । पद्भ्याग्ं शूद्रो अजायतः ॥

चन्द्रमा मनसो जातः । चक्षोः सूर्यो अजायत ।
मुखादिन्द्रश्चाग्निश्च । प्राणाद्वायुरजायत ॥

नाभ्या आसीदन्तरिक्षम् । शीर्ष्णो द्यौः समवर्तत ।
पद्भ्यां भूमिर्दिशः श्रोत्रात् । तथा लोकाग्म् अकल्पयन् ॥

वेदाहमेतं पुरुषं महान्तम् । आदित्यवर्णं तमसस्तु पारे ।
सर्वाणि रूपाणि विचित्य धीरः । नामानि कृत्वा‌ऽभिवदन्, यदा‌ऽऽस्ते ॥

धाता पुरस्ताद्यमुदाजहार । शक्रः प्रविद्वान्-प्रदिशश्चतस्रः ।
तमेवं विद्वानमृत इह भवति । नान्यः पन्था अयनाय विद्यते ॥

यज्ञेन यज्ञमयजन्त देवाः । तानि धर्माणि प्रथमान्यासन् ।
ते ह नाकं महिमानः सचन्ते । यत्र पूर्वे साध्यास्सन्ति देवाः ॥

अद्भ्यः सम्भूतः पृथिव्यै रसाच्च । विश्वकर्मणः समवर्तताधि ।
तस्य त्वष्टा विदधद्रूपमेति । तत्पुरुषस्य विश्वमाजानमग्रे ॥

वेदाहमेतं पुरुषं महान्तम् । आदित्यवर्णं तमसः परस्तात् ।
तमेवं विद्वानमृत इह भवति । नान्यः पन्था विद्यते‌ऽयनाय ॥

प्रजापतिश्चरति गर्भे अन्तः । अजायमानो बहुधा विजायते ।
तस्य धीराः परिजानन्ति योनिम् । मरीचीनां पदमिच्छन्ति वेधसः ॥

यो देवेभ्य आतपति । यो देवानां पुरोहितः ।
पूर्वो यो देवेभ्यो जातः । नमो रुचाय ब्राह्मये ॥

रुचं ब्राह्मं जनयन्तः । देवा अग्रे तदब्रुवन् ।
यस्त्वैवं ब्राह्मणो विद्यात् । तस्य देवा असन् वशे ॥

ह्रीश्च ते लक्ष्मीश्च पत्न्यौ । अहोरात्रे पार्श्वे ।
नक्षत्राणि रूपम् । अश्विनौ व्यात्तम् ।
इष्टं मनिषाण । अमुं मनिषाण । सर्वं मनिषाण ॥

तच्चं योरावृणीमहे । गातुं यज्ञाय । गातुं यज्ञपतये । दैवी स्वस्तिरस्तु नः । स्वस्तिर्मानुषेभ्यः । ऊर्ध्वं जिगातु भेषजम् । शं नो अस्तु द्विपदे । शं चतुष्पदे ।

ॐ शान्तिः शान्तिः शान्तिः ॥
sahasraśīrṣā puruṣaḥ | sahasrākṣaḥ sahasrapāt |
sa bhūmiṃ viśvato vṛtvā | atyatiṣṭhaddaśāṅgulam |

puruṣa evedagṃ sarvam | yadbhūtaṃ yacca bhavyam |
utāmṛtatva syeśānaḥ | yadannenātirohati ||

etāvānasya mahimā | ato jyāyāgm‍śca pūruṣaḥ |
pādo‌’sya viśvā bhūtāni | tripādasyāmṛtaṃ divi ||

tripādūrdhva udaitpuruṣaḥ | pādo‌’syehā‌”bhavātpunaḥ |
tato viṣvaṇ-vyakrāmat | sāśanānaśane abhi ||

tasmādvirāḍajāyata | virājo adhi pūruṣaḥ |
sa jāto atyaricyata | paścād-bhūmimatho puraḥ ||

yatpuruṣeṇa haviṣā | devā yajñamatanvata |
vasanto asyāsīdājyam | grīṣma idhmaśśaradhdhaviḥ ||

saptāsyāsan-paridhayaḥ | triḥ sapta samidhaḥ kṛtāḥ |
devā yadyajñaṃ tanvānāḥ | abadhnan-puruṣaṃ paśum ||

taṃ yajñaṃ barhiṣi praukṣan | puruṣaṃ jātamagrataḥ |
tena devā ayajanta | sādhyā ṛṣayaśca ye ||

tasmādyajñāt-sarvahutaḥ | sambhṛtaṃ pṛṣadājyam |
paśūg-stāg‍ścakre vāyavyān | āraṇyān-grāmyāśca ye ||

tasmādyajñātsarvahutaḥ | ṛcaḥ sāmāni jajñire |
chandāgṃsi jajñire tasmāt | yajustasmādajāyata ||

tasmādaśvā ajāyanta | ye ke cobhayādataḥ |
gāvo ha jajñire tasmāt | tasmājjātā ajāvayaḥ ||

yatpuruṣaṃ vyadadhuḥ | katithā vyakalpayan
mukhaṃ kimasya kau bāhū | kāvūrū pādāvucyete ||

brāhmaṇ’sya mukhamāsīt | bāhū rājanyaḥ kṛtaḥ |
ūrū tadasya yadvaiśyaḥ | padbhyāgṃ śūdro ajāyataḥ ||

candramā manaso jātaḥ | cakṣoḥ sūryo ajāyata |
mukhādindraścāgniśca | prāṇādvāyurajāyata ||

nābhyā āsīdantarikṣam | śīrṣṇo dyauḥ samavartata |
padbhyāṃ bhūmirdiśaḥ śrotrāt | tathā lokāgm akalpayan ||

vedāhametaṃ puruṣaṃ mahāntam | ādityavarṇaṃ tamasastu pāre |
sarvāṇi rūpāṇi vicitya dhīraḥ | nāmāni kṛtvā‌’bhivadan, yadā‌”ste ||

dhātā purastādyamudājahāra | śakraḥ pravidvān-pradiśaścatasraḥ |
tamevaṃ vidvānamṛta iha bhavati | nānyaḥ panthā ayanāya vidyate ||

yajñena yajñamayajanta devāḥ | tāni dharmāṇi prathamānyāsan |
te ha nākaṃ mahimānaḥ sacante | yatra pūrve sādhyāssanti devāḥ ||

adbhyaḥ sambhūtaḥ pṛthivyai rasācca | viśvakarmaṇaḥ samavartatādhi |
tasya tvaṣṭā vidadhadrūpameti | tatpuruṣasya viśvamājānamagre ||

vedāhametaṃ puruṣaṃ mahāntam | ādityavarṇaṃ tamasaḥ parastāt |
tamevaṃ vidvānamṛta iha bhavati | nānyaḥ panthā vidyate‌’yanāya ||

prajāpatiścarati garbhe antaḥ | ajāyamāno bahudhā vijāyate |
tasya dhīrāḥ parijānanti yonim | marīcīnāṃ padamicchanti vedhasaḥ ||

yo devebhya ātapati | yo devānāṃ purohitaḥ |
pūrvo yo devebhyo jātaḥ | namo rucāya brāhmaye ||

rucaṃ brāhmaṃ janayantaḥ | devā agre tadabruvan |
yastvaivaṃ brāhmaṇo vidyāt | tasya devā asan vaśe ||

hrīśca te lakṣmīśca patnyau | ahorātre pārśve |
nakṣatrāṇi rūpam | aśvinau vyāttam |
iṣṭaṃ maniṣāṇa | amuṃ maniṣāṇa | sarvaṃ maniṣāṇa ||

taccaṃ yorāvṛṇīmahe | gātuṃ yajñāya | gātuṃ yajñapataye | daivī svastirastu naḥ | svastirmānuṣebhyaḥ | ūrdhvaṃ jigātu bheṣajam | śaṃ no astu dvipade | śaṃ catuṣpade |
śāntiḥ śāntiḥ śāntiḥ ||
Click to consult Prof. Vd. Rangaprasad Bhat


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