Classification Of Marma Based On Effect Of Injury

Article by Dr Raghuram Y.S. MD (Ay) and Dr Manasa, B.A.M.S
Marmas are the vital points or delicate areas of the body. They cause death or damage or deformity when they get injured. Based on the level of damage caused by injury, Marmas are classified into five types. 

1. Sadyo Pranahara Marma – injury leading to immediate death.
2. Kalantara Pranahara Marma – injury leading to gradual death
3. Vaikalyakara Marma – injury leading to deformity
4. Rujakara Marma – injury leading to pain
5. Vishalyaghna Marma – Removal of pierced foreign material from the site leads to injury.

1. Sadyo Pranahar Marma:
Injury leads to immediate death.
It is composed of Agni Mahabhuta.
Other symptoms of injury –
Asampraapti of Indriyaarthas (loss of sensory perception),
Mano Buddhi Viparyaya (perversion in the activities of mind and cognition) and
Vividha teevra rujaaha (different types of severe pain and death).

Sadhyaha Praanahara Marmas are 8 by name and 19 in number.

Sadhya Praanahara Marmas
There are 19 Sadhyo Praanahara Marmas covered under 08 names and scattered all over the body. They are –
Shrungaataka – 4 in number – Amidst blood vessels nourishing the sense organs (except skin).
Adhipati – 1 in number – At the confluence of veins located at the superior part of intra cranial portion
Shankha – 2 in number – Between ear and forehead on either side, in the temples
Kanta Sira or Maatruka – 8 in number – 4 each on either side of the neck
Gudam – 1 in number – In the region of anus, attached (in continuation) with Colon
Hridayam – 1 in number – In the chest cavity between breasts  and near opening of the stomach
Vasti – 1 in number – In the waist (pelvic cavity), represents the urinary bladder
Nabhi – 1 in number – In the navel region, at the junction of Pakwashaya (colon, small intestine) and Amashaya (stomach).

2. Kalantara Pranahara Marmas
Predominantly composed of Soma (Jala or water component) and Agni Mahabhuta (fire component).

Due to proportional dominance of Jala over Agni, the intensity of Agni will be less. Owing to the presence of predominant Jala element in Kaalantara Praanahara Marmas, the death occurs gradually and the person may die within a month.

Other symptoms of injury of Kaalantara Praanahara Marmas are –
dhatu kshaya (depletion of tissues) and
kshayaja vedana (emaciation and pain due to emaciation).

Kalantar Pranahar Marmas are 12 by name and 33 in number.
Stanamula – 2 – Below the sthana (breasts) on both sides of the chest
Stanarohita – 2 – Above the nipples on both sides of the chest
Apalapa – 2 in number, – Below the acromian process of the scapula and above the sides of the thorax, near the arm pit on either side of the chest
Apastambha – 2 in number – Air carrying ducts (Naadi) located one on either side of the midline of the chest
Seemanta – 5 in number – Over the scalp of the head in the form of suture joints
Talahridaya – 4 in number – Middle of palm and middle of sole
Kshipra – 4 in number – Between Thumb and fingers, Between big toe and fingers
Indrabasti – 4 in number – Middle of forearm on front side, Middle of leg in line with medial malleolus
Kateekataruna – 2 in number – Low back, one on either side of the back bone, on the pelvic bones (hip bone)
Parshwa sandhi – 2 in number – Tied up with lower parts of the hip bones, oblique and upwards and in between the hip bones
Brihati – 2 in number- At the level of Sthana Moola (chest marmas located at the lower parts of the breasts) and on both lateral parts of vertebral column
Nitamba – 2 in number – Above the pelvic region covering the viscera and between the 2 lateral parts

3. Vaikalyakar Marma:
Marmas which cause deformity on getting injured.
Predominantly composed of Soma (Jala or water component) tatva or guna. Due to the effect of stability (sthiratva) and coldness (shaitya) brought about by the Soma guna, the Jala dhatu supports the Pranas or vital life forces.
Kalantar Pranahar Marmas are 19 by name and 44 in number.

Lohitaksha – 4 in number – Above Bahvi Marma and below shoulder joint. Above Oorvi Marma and below hip joint.
Aani – 4 in number – Above elbow joint, in the arm. Above knee joint, in the thigh
Jaanu – 2 in number – Knee joints
Bahvi – 2 in number – Middle of the arm
Urvi – 2 in number – Middle of the Thigh
Koorcha – 4 in number – Proximal to Kshipra (Kshipra lies between thumb and fingers)
Proximal to Kshipra (Kshipra lies between big toe and digits)
Vitapa – 2 in number – Between groin and testes (scrotum)
Kurpara – 2 in number – Elbow joints
Kukundara – 2 in number – Lateral part of gluteal region (butt) on both sides of the spine
Kakshadhara – 2 in number – Between thorax and axilla
Vidhura – 2 in number – Behind and below the ear
Krukatika – 2 in number – Junction of head and neck
Amsa – 2 in number – Between (junction of) arm, head and neck, attached to the scapular region and shoulder
Amsaphalaka – 2 in number – Upper part of the back, on both lateral sides of vertebral column and at the place of union of 3 bones (scapula, humerus and clavicle)
Apanga – 2 in number – Outer angles of the eyes, below the lower limit of eyebrows on either side
Neela – 2 in number – 1 on either side of Trachea or wind pipe
Manya dhamani – 2 in number – 1 on either side of Trachea or wind pipe
Phana – 2 in number – On both sides inside the nasal passage, deeply attached to its pathway
Aavarta – 2 in number – Just above the eyebrows

4. Rujakar Marma:
Injury leads to pain. Predominantly composed of Agni and Vayu Guna (fire and air element).
3 by name and 8 in number. 

Gulpha – 2 in number – Ankle Joint
Manibandha – 2 in number – wrist joint
Kurchashira – 4 in number – distal to wrist joint, distal to ankle joint.

5. Vishalyaghna Marma:
Marmas which cause death on removal of the weapon from the site of impaction (Marma point). 

As long as the weapon or foreign body lay in the area of impaction (Marma area) the person lives. Once the foreign body or weapon is removed, the person dies due to the escape of Prana Vayu or vital air force which is also a life force. It is said that as long as the instrument or weapon is impacted in the site of Marma, it blocks the vayu. Once it is removed, the vayu escapes causing immediate death.

If the weapon falls off by itself after few days following the healing of wound, the person may survive.
They are predominantly composed of Vayu Guna (qualities of Vayu Mahabhuta or Air element).

There are 3 Vishalyaghna Marmas covered under 2 names and scattered all over the body.
Utkshepa – 2 in number – Above the Shankha Marma, at the level of limit of scalp hair
Sthapani – 2 in number – Between the eyebrows.

Marmas and Mahabhuta dominance:
Sadyo Pranahara Marma – Agni
Kalantara Pranahara Marma – Agni + Soma
Vishalyaghna Marma – Vayu
Vaikalyakara Marma – Soma
Rujakara Marma – Agni and Vayu

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