Classification Of Marma Based On Components

Article by Dr Raghuram Y.S. MD (Ay) and Dr Manasa, B.A.M.S
Marmas are the vital points or delicate areas of the body. They cause death or damage or deformity when they get injured. Marmas are formed by congruence of 5 important elements of the body i.e. Mamsa (muscle), Sira (blood vessels, veins), Snayu (ligaments, tendons), Asthi (Bone) and Sandhi (joints). 

But each Marma is made up predominantly of 1 element (among the above said). They will be called by that name.

Example – Talahridaya is a Marma located in the upper limb (hand). It is made up predominantly of Mamsa (muscle tissue). Therefore it is called Mamsa Marma. Similarly Hridaya or heart is predominantly made up of Sira, therefore it is called Sira Marma. Mamsa Marmas are 11 in number.

Mamsa Marmas
There are 4 Mamsa Marmas (by names) and 11 Mamsa Marmas (by number). They are –
– Talahridaya – 4 in number
– Indrabasti – 4 in number
– Guda – 1 in number
– Stanarohita – 2 in number

Thus, the Mamsa Marmas are 11 in number. They are distributed all through the body.

Talahridaya – Located at the middle of palm, Middle of sole – 2 in palm (1 in each palm and 2 in sole (1 each in each sole) – Injury leads to pain and death. Type of Shakhagata Marma (located in upper and lower limbs) And Kaalaantara Praanahara Marma.

Indravasti – Located at the middle of forearm on front side (UL), Middle of leg in line with medial (LL) – 2 in forearm (1 in each forearm) and 2 in leg (1 in each leg) – Injury leads to death due to hemorrhage. Type of Shakhagata Marma (located in upper and lower limbs) And Kaalaantara Praanahara Marma

Guda marma – Located in the region of anus, attached (in continuation) with Colon- 1 in number – Injury leads to immediate death. Type of Udara Gata Marma, Madhyama Shareera Gata Marma And Sadhyo Praanahara Marma

Stanarohita – Located above the nipples on both sides of the chest – 2 in number – Injury leads to  filling up of thoracic cavity with blood, cough, dyspnoea and consequential death. Type of Uro Gata Marma, Madhyama Shareera Gata Marma And Kaalantara Praanahara Marma

Categorization of 4 Mamsa Marmas based on their location
Shakha Gata Marma – 2 – Talahridaya (4, 1 each in each limb)
Indrabasti (4, 1 each in each limb)
Uro Gata Marma (chest) – 1 – Stanarohita (2)
Udara Gata Marma (abdomen) – 1 – Guda

Categorization of 4 Mamsa Marmas based on the effect of injury of the Marma
Sadhyo Praanahara – 1 Guda
Kalantara Pranahara Marma – 3 – Talahridaya, Indrabasti, Stanarohita

Sira Marma: Made up of blood vessels

Sira Marmas

There are 17 Sira Marmas by name and 41 Sira Marmas by number. They are –

  • Neela– 2 in number
  • Manya dhamani– 2 in number
  • Matruka /kantha sira– 8 in number
  • Srungataka – 4 in number
  • Apanga – 2 in number
  • Sthapanee – 1 in number
  • Phana – 2 in number
  • Stanamula – 2
  • Apalapa– 2 in number
  • Apastambha – 2 in number
  • Hrudaya – 1 in number
  • Nabhi – 1 in number
  • Parshwa sandhi – 2 in number
  • Brihati – 2 in number
  • Lohitaksha – 4 in number
  • Oorvi – 2 in number
  • Bahvi – 2 in number

Thus, the Sira Marmas are 41 in number. They are distributed all through the body.

Sira Marmas, their location, number and effect of injury
Neela Manya – 4 in number – located on either side of Trachea or wind pipe
Matrika Marma – 4 each on either side of the neck
ShringatakaAmidst blood vessels nourishing the sense organs (except skin)
Apanga – Outer angles of the eyes, below the lower limit of eyebrows on either side
SthapaniBetween the eyebrows

Phana – On both sides inside the nasal passage, deeply attached to its pathway
Sthanamoola – Below the sthana (breasts) on both sides of the chest
Apalapa – Below the acromian process of the scapula and above the sides of the thorax, near the arm pit on either side of the chest.

Apastambha – Air carrying ducts (Nadi) located one on either side of the midline of the chest
Hridaya – In the chest cavity between breasts  and near opening of the stomach
Nabhi – In the navel region, at the junction of Pakwashaya (colon, small intestine) and Amashaya (stomach)

Parshwa Sandhi – Tied up with lower parts of the hip bones, oblique and upwards and in between the hip bones
Brihati – At the level of Sthana Moola (chest marmas located at the lower parts of the breasts) and on both lateral parts of vertebral column

Lohitaksha – a) In UL – Above Bahvi Marma and below shoulder joint
b) In LL – Above Oorvi Marma and below hip joint
Bahvi – Middle of the arm
Oorvi – Middle of the thigh

Categorization of 17 Sira Marmas based on their location
Shakha Gata Marma – 3 – Lohitaksha (4), 1 in each limb, Bahvi (2) – 1 in each UL, Oorvi (2) – 1 in each LL
Uro Gata Marma – 4 – Stanamoola (2), Apalapa (2), Apastambha (2)
Hridaya (1)
Udara Gata Marma – 1 – Nabhi
Prishta Gata Marma – 2 – Parshwa Sandhi (2), Brihati (Bruhati) (2)
Shiro Greeva Gata Marma – Neela (2), Manya (2), Matruka (Kanta Sira) (8), Srungataka (2), Apanga (2), Sthapanee (1), Phana (2)

Categorization of 17 Sira Marmas based on the effect of injury of the Marma
Sadhyo Pranahara – 3 – Matruka (Kanta Sira) -8, Hridaya – 1, Nabhi – 1
Kalantara Pranahara – 5 in number – Sthanamoola- 2, Apalapa – 2, Apasthambha – 2, Parshwa Sandhi – 2, Brihati (Bruhati) – 2
Vaikalyakara – Neela Manya, Apanga, Sthapani, Phana, Lohitaksha, Bahvi.

Snayu Marmas – made up of ligaments, tendons
There are 27 Snayu Marmas covered under 10 names and scattered all over the body. They are –
Aani – 4 in number
Vitapa – 2 in number
Kakshadhara – 2 in number
Kurcha – 4 in number
Kurchashira – 4in number
Vasti – 1 in number
Kshipra – 4 in number
Amsa – 2 in number
Vidhura – 2 in number
Utkshepa – 2 in number

Categorization of 10 Snayu Marmas based on their location
Shakha Gata Marma  – Aani, Vitapa, Kakshadhara, Koorcha, Koorchashira, Kshipra.
Udara Gata Marma – Vasti
Prishta Gata Marma – Amsa (2)
Shiro Greeva Gata Marma – Utkshepa, Vidhura

Categorization of 10 Snayu Marmas based on the effect of injury of the Marma
Sadhyo Praanahara – Vasti 
Kaalantara Praanahara – Kshipra
Vaikalyakara – Ani, Vitapa, Kakshadhara, Koorcha, Amsa, Vidhura
Rujakara – Koorchashira
Vishalyaghna – Utkshepa

Asthi Marma: Made up of bones:
There are 4 Asthi Marmas covered under 8 names and scattered all over the body. They are –
Kateekataruna – 2 in number – Low back, one on either side of the back bone, on the pelvic bones (hip bone)
Nitamba – 2 in number – Above the pelvic region covering the viscera and between the 2 lateral parts
Amsaphalaka – 2 in number – Upper part of the back, on both lateral sides of vertebral column and at the place of union of 3 bones (scapula, humerus and clavicle)
Shankha – 4 in number – Between ear and forehead on either side, in the temples

Among the above, Katikataruna, Nitamba and Amsaphalaka are located at the back and Shankha is located at the head.

Among them,
Shankha – Sadyo Pranahara
Kateekataruna and Nitamba – Kaalantara Praanahara
Amsaphalaka – Vaikalyakara

Sandhi Marma – made up of bone joints:

Sandhi Marmas
There are 20 Sandhi Marmas covered under 09 names and scattered all over the body. They are –
Janu – 2 in number – knee joints
Koorpara – 2 in number – Elbow joints
Seemanta – 5 in number – Over the scalp of the head in the form of suture joints
Adhipati – 1 in number – At the confluence of veins located at the superior part of intra cranial portion
Gulpha – 2 in number – ankle joint
Manibandha – 2 in number – wrist joint
Kukundara – 2 in number – Lateral part of gluteal region (butt) on both sides of the spine
Aavarta – 2 in number – Just above the eyebrows
Krukaatika – 2 in number – Junction of head and neck

Classification of Asthi marmas based on effect of injury:
Sadhyo Praanahara – Adhipati
Kaalantara Praanahara – Seemanta
Vaikalyakara – Jaanu, Koorpara, Kukundara, Aavarta, Krukaatikaa
Rujaakara – Gulpha, Manibandha
Click to Consult Dr Raghuram Y.S. MD (Ayu)


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