Phana Marma: Components, Location, Effect Of Injury

Article by Dr Raghuram Y.S. MD (Ay) and Dr Manasa, B.A.M.S
Phana is an important Marma i.e. vital or delicate point in the body. It is located within the nasal passages. It is predominantly made up of siraas (blood vessels, veins).  

Phana Marma
घ्राण मार्गं उभयतः स्रोतो मार्ग प्रतिबद्धे अभ्यन्तरतः फणे तत्र गन्ध अज्ञानम्।(सु.शा.६/२७)

Location –
Phana Marmas are located in the nasal passages all along the tracts (sroto margas). They are 2 in number.

Categories in which the Phana Marma is included
i) Shiro-Greeva Gata Marma (Shiro = Head, Greeva = Neck)
ii) Siraa Marma – Phana marma is predominantly made up of Siraas i.e. blood vessels (veins). The other elements namely Asthi (Bones), Snaayu (ligaments, tendons, nerves), Sandhi (bony joints) and Mamsa (muscles) are also present but in a lesser proportion.
iii) Vaikalyakara Marma – (Vaikalya kara – deformity forming) Phana Marmas when injured, leads to deformity of nose.

Pramana (measurement of Phana Marma) –
Phana Marma occupies a space of ½ angula dimension (approximately equal to the horizontal dimension or breadth of middle segment of one’s own middle finger)

Effect of Injury –
तत्र गन्ध अज्ञानम्।(सु.शा.६/२७)
Injury of Phana Marma causes deformity.
Injury of Phana Marma leads to Gandha Agnaanam (anosmia, loss of smell sensation or perception).

Modern Perspective (Practical anatomy) of Phana Marma
Structures falling in the area of Phana Marma –

  • Nose
  • Nasal passages (right and left)
  • Olfactory region of the nose
  • Olfactory nerves
  • Orifice of auditory tube

Though all the elements which comprise a marma i.e. asthi (bones), mamsa (muscles), snaayu (ligaments and tendons) and sandhi (joints) are all present in the site of this Marma, it is predominant in the siraa (blood vessels, veins) making up the Phana Marma, therefore it is a Siraa Marma.

When Phana marma gets damaged, the effect of injury will chiefly involve the blood vessels within the olfactory tracts or nasal passages in comparison to the extent of damage caused to other tissues.

Just Before Finishing
Phana Marma is located in the nasal passages and represents those areas which catch and read the smell. Thus Phana Marmas are located in the olfactory zone responsible for perceiving the sensation of smell. When this Marma is injured the person would fail to identify the smell of anything. This condition is called Anosmia. Any variations in the process of smelling should not be ignored as the Phana Marmas might be involved in these cases.
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