Chirabilva- Holoptelea integrifolia, Uses, Research, Remedies, Side Effects

Indian Elm – Holoptelea integrifolia is a herb mentioned in Ayurveda for the treatment of localized swelling, skin diseases, nausea, diabetes, indigestion, piles and acts as blood purifier. It is commonly called Chirabilva in Ayurveda. 

Latin name- Holoptelea integrifolia Planch
Family- Ulmaceae

Chirabiwa – Names in different languages:
English name – Indian Elm, entire-leaved elm tree, jungle cork tree, south Indian elm tree
Hindi name- Chilbil
Kannada name- Neelavahi
Malayalam name- Aaval
Marathi name- Bavali
Tamil name- Aapa, Ayil pattai
Telugu name- Nemalinara chettu
Urdu name- Dharanji

Sanskrit synonyms of Chiruvilwa – Putika, Karanji, Udakirya, Karabhanjika, Prakirya

Morphology of Holoptelea integrifolia:
It is a medium size tree growing to a height of 10-15 m. The bark is pale white colored. Leaves are 3-5 inch long, 2-3 inch wide, oval to renal shaped.  The flowers are small, greenish yellow and found in clusters. The fruits are round and the seeds are flat. Flowers are seen in the spring season and the fruits are seen in summer. Both flowers and fruits release pungent odor when crushed. The tree is found in the temperate climate of India.

Mediicnal properties of Indian Elm:
Rasa (Taste) – Tikta (Bitter), Kashaya (Astringent)
Guna (Qualities) – Laghu (Light for digestion), Ruksha (Dry in nature)
Vipaka – Katu (Undergoes Pungent taste after digestion)
Veerya (Potency) – Ushna (Hot)
Karma (Actions) – Kapha pitta shamaka (reduces vitiated kapha and pitta dosha)

Part used- Bark
Dosage-
Bark powder- 3 to 5g
Decoction- 50 to 100 ml

Chemical composition of Holoptelea integrifolia: 
Stem bark of the plant contains triterpinoidal fatty acid esters, Holoptelin A and B, B- sitosterol, friedelin and epi- friedelinol. The leaves contain Hexacosanol and B- amyrin. The seeds contain yellow colored oil in it.

 Uses of Chirabilva;

  • The powder of the bark of Chirabilwa is made into powder and sprinkled over fresh wounds to control bleeding and help in quicker healing.
  • Decoction of the bark of Holoptelia integrifolia is given in a dose of 50-60 ml to control diabetes.
  • The paste of the bark of the tree is applied over the area affected with scabies, wounds and other skin diseases.
  • Cold infusion or decoction of the bark of Chirabilwa is given in a dose of 30-40 ml to improve the appetite and to expel the intestinal worms.
  • Paste prepared from the bark of the tree is applied over external pile mass as part of treatment.
  • The regular consumption of decoction of the bark of Holoptelia integrifolia in a dose of 30-40 ml acts as blood purifier.

Adverse effect: No adverse effect is known or reported after the normal use of Chirabilva.

Ayurvedic medicines containing Chirabilva:
Poothikasavam: It is a liquid medicine used mainly in the treatment of hemorrhoids, stomach and spleen disorders.
Chiruvilwadi kashaya: It is a ayurvedic decoction used mainly in the treatment of piles and fistula. It also relieves bloating, burning sensation and improves the digestive capacity.

Piyush valli rasa: It is an Ayurvedic medicine in tablet form, used in treatment of digestive disorders, liver disorders, indigestion, mal absorption syndrome, diarrhoea, fever, dysentery, bleeding per rectum, bloating, puerperal disorders, menorrhagia, female infertility, urinary tract disorders.
Indukantha kashaya: It is a herbal decoction useful in the treatment of fever, abdominal bloating, distention of abdomen and improves digestion.

Gorochanadi gulika: It is a tablet used in the treatment of pneumonia, cough, cold, bronchitis, asthma, diseases of throat, tonsillitis, chronic fever.
Rasnadi choorna: It is an Ayurvedic medicine, used to apply over scalp, to relieve headache and sinusitis.

Laxinol capsule:  This is a proprietary ayurvedic medicine in capsule form useful in the treatment of constipation.
Pilorid ointment: This is a proprietary ayurvedic medicine in ointment form, used externally in the treatment of piles and fistula.

Research articles related to Holoptelea integrifolia:
Anti- inflammatory action: The purpose of the present study was to investigate the anti-inflammatory properties of aqueous extract of the leaves of H. integrifolia, Planch. The hind paw edema was produced in rats by subplanter injection of carageenan. The aqueous extract of H. integrifolia, Planch. (AHI) at dose (250 and 500 mg/kg p.o) was given to observe % inhibition of paw edema which were comparable with indomethacin (10 mg/kg p.o) used as a reference drug.
Results: The extract administered orally at doses of 250 and 500 mglkg p.o produced a significant (P < 0.05) dose dependent inhibition of edema formation.

Mosquito larvicidal action: During the present study, larval mortality of Culex vishuni group was observed after 24 h, 48 h and 72 h of exposure with five concentrations of crude extract (0.1%, 0.2%, 0.3%, 0.4% and 0.5%) and four concentrations (100 ppm, 200 ppm, 300 ppm and 400 ppm) of acetone extract of leaf of the plant. Effects of acetone extract of H. integrifolia leaves were tested against non-target predatory fishes and insect larvae. During the present study, the mortality rates of all larval instars at 0.5% concentration were significantly higher (p < 0.05) than at 0.1%, 0.2%, 0.3% and 0.4% concentrations of crude leaf extract.

Anti- convulsant effect: The main objective of the work was to evaluate the anticonvulsant activity of Holoptelea Integrifolia (Roxb.) Planch.  Holoptelea Integrifolia leaves was evaluated using Pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) induced convulsions in mice and maximal electro shock (MES) induced C onvulsions and lithium-pilocarpine induced status epilepticus in rats. The petroleum ether extract (100 and 300 mg/kg) and methanolic extract (300 mg/kg) delayed onset of PTZ- induced convulsions and also prolonged the onset of tonic convulsions in mice. Both the extracts failed to protect the rats from MES induced convulsions. The extracts also protected rats against seizures induced by lithium-pilocarpine.

Classical categorization:
Charaka Samhita- Lekhaniya, Bhedaniya
Sushruta Samhita- Sleshma samhanana
Raja Nighantu- Prabadradi varga

Systemic classification
Domain – Eukaryotic
Kingdom – Plantae
Division – Tracheophyta
Class – Magnoliopsida
Order – Rosales
Family – ulmaceae
Genus – Holoptelea
Species – Holoptelea integrifolia

Author: Dr.B.K.Prashanth M.D (Ayu), Ph.D
E mail: drprashanthbk@gmail.com
Click to consult Dr Prashanth BK


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