Jamalgota: Purging Croton Uses, Medicines, Side Effects

Jayapala- Croton tiglium is a plant mentioned in Ayurveda for the treatment of alopecia, erectile dysfunction, ascites, severe constipation and to induce purgation, so the name, purging croton. It is known as Jamalgota in Hindi. 

Latin name- Croton tiglium Linn.
Family- Euphorbiaceae

Morphology of croton tiglium:
Jayapala is a small tree growing to a height of 15-20 feet and is found in North East and South Indian state. The leaves are2-4 inch long, slimy with 3-5 veins. Flower is greenish yellow, 2-3 inch long and unisexual in nature. The fruit is 1 inch long, white in color, round and has 3 ridges. The seeds are oval, brown colored and 0.5 to 0.7 inch long. Inside the seed is reddish brown colored oil like substance. The flowers are seen in summer season and the fruits are seen in the winter season.

Croton tiglium medicinal properties:
Rasa (Taste) – Katu (Pungent)
Guna (Qualities) – Guru (Heavy for digestion), Ruksha (Dry in nature), Teekshna (Strong)
Vipaka – Katu (Undergoes Pungent taste after digestion)
Veerya (Potency) – Ushna (Hot)
Karma (Actions) – Kaphapitta shamaka (reduces vitiated kapha and pitta dosha)

Part used- Seed, Seed oil
Dosage-
Seed- 25 to 50 mg
Seed oil- 1-2 drops

Chemical composition of croton tiglium:
The seed contains Fatty fixed oil Tiglinic acid, Crotonic acid and Crotonol.

Jayapala Shodhana – Purification of Jamalgota seeds:
जयपालं त्वग्रसजारहितं पोट्टलीगतम् ।
ढोलायन्त्रे तु यामैकं स्वेदयेत् गव्यदुग्धतः ।।
संपेष्य खल्वे मूलेषु खर्परेषु प्रलेपयेत् ।
विज्ञाय विगतस्नेहं जयपालं समाहरेत् ।।                        (र.त)
Ayurveda mentions about the shodhana (purification) method to purify Jayapala seeds before its use. The shodhana method is done to reduce the toxicity of the seeds.

The seeds are taken and cut into two along the ridge. Then the seeds are boiled in cow milk for about 3 hours and the dried under sunlight by keeping the seeds in an earthen plate. The earthen plate absorbs the oil content from the seeds thus reducing its toxicity level.

  • Jayapala beeja is taken in a vessel containing water and kept overnight to remove the cotyledon.
  • It’s then taken in a clean cloth and made into pottali and swedana is done in dola yanthra with cow milk for three hours.
  • Then it’s taken out and the beejankura is removed.
  • It’s then made into paste and applied over a mud pot.
  • Kept, till the oil oozes out and partially dries.
  • It’s then collected.

Uses of Jamalgota: 

  • The paste of the purified seeds of Jayapala is applied over the scalp to treat alopecia.
  • The paste of the seeds of Croton tiglium is applied over the penile region as part of treatment of erectile dysfunction.
  • The seed powder is given in a dose of 20-40 mg to induce purgation and treat cases of ascites and severe constipation.
  • The paste of the seeds of Jayapala is applied over the skin surface to treat skin diseases.
  • In cases of snake bite poisoning, the paste of the seeds of Jayapala is mixed with lime juice and applied as collyrium.
  • To treat intestinal worms, the seed of Croton tiglium is given in a dose of 20 mg with hot water.
  • In cases of generalized swelling all over the body, the paste of seeds of Jayapala is given to induce purgation and reduce the swelling.

Traditional uses:
Fruits
Madhura Vipaka (taste conversion after digestion) – sweet
Snigdha – unctuous, oily
Brumhana – nourishing, nutritious
Vrushya – aphrodisiac, improves vigor
Balya – improves strength and immunity
Vatapittahara – Balances Vata and Pitta Dosha

Indicated in
Kasa – cough, cold
Shwasa – asthma and chronic respiratory disorders
Kshataksheena – wounded, injured
Garavisha – chronic poisoning

Purified seeds:
Deepana – improves digestion strength
kaphavataghna – Balance Kapha and Vata Dosha
Rechana – induces purgation

Uses:
In pain and swelling – Paste of the seed is applied externally
In Indraplupta – Alopecia areata – Seed paste is applied over the affected area
In snake bite, macerate the seed in lemon juice and applied to  eyes

Adverse effect of purging croton:
The oil of the seed of Jayapala can cause severe purgation leading to dehydration and pain in abdomen. The oil can cause blisters in skin if applied in high concentration.

Poisoning symptoms:
Croton oil is the most powerful hydragogue cathartic ever known. It causes violent inflammation to the mucous membranes. It produces nausea and violent vomiting. Impure Jayapala beeja produces vesicles with yellow exudation and urticaria of the abdominal skin.

Treatment:
Consume milk, curd, ghee, lemon juice and water.
Gastric lavage with hot water.
Give snigdha dravyas like yava jala, egg yolk etc.
Administration of morphia injection.
Give karpoora arka to prevent virechana
Symptomatic treatment

Ayurvedic medicines containing Jaypal:
Krimishodhini vati: It is an Ayurvedic tablet used in treating intestinal worms, relives constipation, bloating of abdomen.
Chesol oil: It is a proprietary Ayurvedic medicine used for the treatment of rheumatic disorders, bronchitis and chest colds with cough and headache.

Ezilax S Tablet: It is a proprietary Ayurvedic medicine used for the treatment of constipation.
Arjunin capsule: It is a proprietary Ayurvedic medicine used as cardiac protector, increasing the strength of cardiac muscles.

Jalodharari rasa: It is a medicine in tablet form, containing purified metals and is used in the treatment of ascites.
Anthrakutara gulika: It is a medicine in tablet form, used in bloating, constipation and such other abdominal conditions.

Research articles related to Croton tiglium:
Anti-helminthic activity: The objective of the study was to test the anthelmintic activity of aqueous and petroleum ether extracts of Croton tiglium seeds. The activity was checked in aqueous and petroleum ether extracts at three different concentration (25, 50 and 75mg/ml) and results were expressed in terms of paralysis time and death time for worms. The results were compared with standard solution, Albendazole (20 mg/ml & 40mg/ml). Both the extract showed significant anthelmintic activity.

Gastro intestinal effect: Croton tiglium used as a cathartic in Ayurvedic system of indigenous medicine, was investigated for its effects in experimental animals. The extract exhibited a dose dependent cathartic effect in albino rats, the extract also showed an increase to gut movement with an increased contractile movement on rabbit jejunum, partially blocked by atropine these preliminary findings suggest that the ethanol extract of the croton dried nuts elicit a purgative effect by increasing the gut motility, partially via muscarnic receptor activation.

Anti- dermatophytic activity: Investigations were carried out in this study to evaluate the anti- dermatophytic activity of the stems, leaves, and seeds of Croton tiglium. The anti- dermatophytic activities of the extracts were evaluated by disc diffusion and microdilution susceptibility assays against Trichophyton mentagrophytes, T. rubrum, and Epidermophyton floccosum. The ethanolic extracts of stem or seed of C. tiglium exhibit strong anti- dermatophytic activities and, thus, could be considered for application on treating skin fungal infections after appropriate processing.

Classical categorization:
Bhavaprakasha- Guduchyadi varga
Dhanvantari Nighantu- Guduchyadi varga
Kaiyyadeva Nighantu- Oushadhi varga
Raja Nighantu- Pippalyadi varga

Names in different languages:
Hindi name- Jamalgota
English name- Purging croton
Bengali name- Jayapala
Gujarathi name- Nepali
Kannada name- Nepala, Japala
Malayalam name- Neervalam
Punjabi name- Japolota
Tamil name- Narchalam
Telugu name- Nepalamu
Italian name – Grana tiglio
Portuguese name – croton tiglio
Arabic name – Habbusalatin

Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Malpighiales
Family: Euphorbiaceae
Subfamily: Crotonoideae
Tribe: Crotoneae
Genus: Croton
Species: C. tiglium

Sanskrit Synonyms of Jaipal: 
Rechaka – That which causes purgation
Beeja rechaka – seed causes purgation
Jayapala – That which wins over all diseases
Dantibeeja – Beeja resembles to that of Danti beeja
Maladravi – That which causes liquid defecation
Nikumba – Globose fruit
Beejarechaka – The seed causes purgation
Kumhibeeja – Pot shaped seed
Sheegra – Fast acting drug
Hastidanti – Big variety of danti
Upachithrika – Leaves resemble to that of Chithraka
Chithramoola – Moola resembles to that of Chithraka
Udumbarachada – Bark is similar to that of Udumbara
Mukoola, Tintideephala.

Text book references:
The literary review explains the citing of Jayapala in various classical texts of Ayurveda. The name is not found in any of the Vedas. But we get plenty of references in the name of Danthibeeja in Brihathrayis and most of the Nigantus. In rest of the classical texts the name Jayapala as such is not found.

Jayapala in the synonym of Danthibeeja is found in almost all sthanas of Charaka Samhitha, Sushrutha Samhitha and Ashtanga Hridaya.

In the first chapter of suthra sthana of Charaka Samhitha, Jayapala is mentioned among the drugs where root is used as medicine. In the next chapter the purgative quality of Jayapala is explained in the event of subsidence of the vitiated dhoshas.

In the twenty fifth chapter of Suthra sthana of Charaka Samhitha, Danti is mentioned under the eleven alcoholic preparations made out of roots. The thirtieth chapter, Ardhedasha mahamuliya adhyaya cite the name of the drug in it. The references are also found in seventh and eighth chapters of Vimana sthana; seventh, thirteenth, twenty seventh and thirty third chapters of Chikitsa sthana; first, eleventh and twelfth chapters of Kalpa sthana and tenth and eleventh chapters of Sidhi sthana.

Sushrutha Samhitha also has mention of Jayapala as Dantibeeja in eleventh, thirty ninth, forty second forty fourth and forty fifth chapters of Suthra sthana; second, eighteenth and thirty first chapters of Chikitsa sthana and forty second and fifty second chapters of Uthara sthana.

Vagbatta in his Ashtanga Hridaya mentions the drug Jayapala if fifteenth chapter of Suthra sthana; fifteenth and nineteenth chapters of Chikitsa sthana; second chapter of Kalpa sthana and thirtieth chapter of Uthara sthana.

Ashtanga Nigantu explains the synonyms and qualities of Jayapala. Nigantu Adarsha mentions it under Amlakyadi Varga and Dhanwanthari Nigantu under Eranda Kula. Bhavaprakasha Nigantu as well states about Dantibeeja

Author:
Dr.B.K.Prashanth M.D (Ayu), Ph.D
E mail: drprashanthbk@gmail.com
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Comments

  1. Adnan khan says:

    It is necessory to use purified jayapal for alopecia and how long it is used.

    • Dr J V Hebbar MD(Ayu) says:

      Usually, both for external and internal administration, Jayapal is used only after purification. It is used for 2 – 3 weeks of time.

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