Priyangu Callicarpa macrophylla: Uses, Research, Remedies

Priyangu – Callicarpa macrophylla is an Ayurvedic coolant herb used for the treatment of headache, diarrhea mixed with blood (Ulcerative colitis), general debility, fever, pain in the joints, skin diseases etc. 

Latin name- Callicarpa Macrophylla Vahl.
Family- Verbenaceae

Names in different languages:
Hindi  name                          : Phalini, Daya
English name                        : Beutyberry
Bengali name                        : Matara, Mathara
Gujarati name                       : Priyangu
Kannada name                     : Priyangu
Malayalam name                 : Gawhla, Nalal, Jativruksha
Marathi name                       : Garhala
Punjabi name                        : Priyang, Sumali
Tamil name                           : Ittauduga, Vettilai pattai, Seembakulthu
Telugu name                         : Kodauduga

 

 

Sanskrit synonyms:
Gandhaphali- The fruit has a strong odor
Phalini- The plant bears many fruits
Asthibandhana- Binds the bones together
Gochandana, Shyama, Pitatandula, Karamba, Priya, Durjara, Kanta, Priyahva, Vanita, Lata, Shyama, Godantini,
Kanguni, Kangu,
Priyavalli, Vrutta, Govandani, Karambha, Varnabhedani, Mahilahvaya, Vishvak Senangana Priya, Bhangura, Mangalya, Shreyasi

Morphology of Callicarpa macrophylla:
Priyangu is a perineal shrub growing up to 2m height found in North eastern parts of India and at 3000 ft in Himalayan region. Branches have hairy like cotton structure. The leaves are 18 to 30cm long ovate as lanceolate, smooth from upper surface and hairy from ventral surface. The flowers are small, pink appears in florescence, some are purple or pinkish purple in color. The fruits are fleshy white divided into 4 compartments, each having single seed, ripe fruits look spongy.

Callicarpa macrophylla medicinal properties:
Rasa (Taste) – Tikta (Bitter), Kashaya (Astringent), Madhura (Sweet)
Guna (Qualities) – Laghu (Light for digestion), Ruksha (Dry in nature)
Vipaka –  Katu (Undergoes Pungent taste after digestion)
Veerya (Potency) – Sheeta (Cold)
Karma (Actions) – Tridosha shamaka (Balances down all the three doshas)

Part used- Flower, Bark, Root
Dosage-
Powder- 3 to 5 g
Decoction- 30 to 40 ml

Callicarpa macrophylla Chemical constituents:
Oil from root is aromatic and stomachic. Calliterpenone (3-0X0-13β – Karane- 16α   , A –diol)   and its acetate are seen in seeds, leaves and aerial parts. Crategolic acid, 2α – hydroxyursolic acid, ursolic acid, β-Sitosterol, β-D-glucoside, apigenin, luteolin, their 7-0-glucuronides 3, 3’-7 trime thoxy-4’, 5- dihydroxy-flarone (CNF-1) L(t)- α- amino- β-(P-methoxyphenyl), Propronic acid, C22 –C24 fatty acids, ethyl ester of C23 fatty acid are obtained from leaves. A new diterpenoid- Isopropylidenocalliterpenone is isolated from essential oil of leaves along with calliterpenone and its monoacetate and characterized as 16α, 17-Iso propylideno-3-oxo-phyllocladane.

Medicinal Uses of Priyangu:      

  • The berries are highly astringent but are made into wine and jelly.
  • The paste of the bark is applied over forehead to treat headache.
  • The powder of the bark of Priyangu is used for rubbing the gums to treat gingivitis and used in face pack to improve the complexion of the face.
  • The powder of the bark is used as dusting powder to control the bleeding from wounds.
  • The decoction of the bark of Callicarpa macrophylla is given in a dose of 30-40 ml to stop internal bleeding in cases of peptic ulcer, internal piles.
  • The cold infusion of the bark or root of Callicarpa macrophylla is given in a dose of 50 ml to treat fever and burning sensation of the body.
  • The dried powder of Priyangu 92 to 3 g) is given with milk to improve the strength of the body.
  • The paste of the bark is applied externally to treat skin diseases.
  • The cold infusion of the bark or root is given in a dose of 40 ml which acts as blood purifier.
  • Oil processed with leaf or bark of Priyangu is applied over the joints having swelling and pain.

THERAPEUTIC USES:
Shitada : Priyangu + Musta+ Triphala are made into paste applied over gums. – Cha. Chi-4/70
Parinama shula: Vomitting is induced with leaf decoction of Priyangu. –  Cha. Su-26
Jvara: Priyangu is best for Jvara, which contains Madhur rasa, Shita virya Dha. Ni/Cha. Su-26

If bleeding does not stop, methods to stop it should be adopted, orifice of wound should be smeared with powder of Priyangu, Yasti, Masha etc. –A. H. Su 27/48.
Decreases Pitta. It comes under group Which mitigates pitta. A. H. Su 15/6

It cures chronic diahorrea, heal fractures, good for pitta, healing ulcers –A. H. Su- 15/37
It helps in unification of broken parts, fractures of bones, makes body stout, and hard to digest. –A. h. Su- 6/12
Priyangu is Shitala, tikta cures delusion, burning sensation, fever, vomiting and dyserasia.- Cha.chi.90
It is also used in rheumatic pain, colic tumors, dysentery, loss of appetite, blood disorders, bleeding disorders, Pittaprameha, skin disorder, general debility and poison.

Uses as per Ayurveda:
Bhagnasandhana Krut – useful in healing fractures
Brumhani – nourishing, nutritious

Indicated in –
Daurgandhya – bad odor
Sweda – excess sweating
Daha –  burning sensation, as in gastritis, neuropathy, burning sensation in eyes etc
Jwara – fever
Gulma – Tumors of the abdomen
Trushna – excessive thirst
Visha – Toxic conditions, poisoning
Moha – delusion
Vanti – vomiting
Bhranti – dizziness

Fruit:
Madhura – sweet
Rooksha – dry
Kashaya – astringent
Sheetala – coolant
Guru – heavy to digest
Vibandhakrut – causes constipation
Adhmanakrut – causes bloating
Balakrut – improves strength
Sangrahi – absorbent, useful in diarrhea, IBS
Kaphapitta jit – Balances Kapha and Pitta Dosha.

Adverse effects: No known adverse effect is reported or known after the use of Priyangiu

Ayurvedic medicines containing Priyangu:
Devadarvarishta: Devadarvarishta is an Ayurvedic medicine, traditionally used to treat skin diseases especially occurring due to complication of diabetes, difficulty in passing urine and digestive diseases.

Ushirasava: Ushirasava is a liquid Ayurveda medicine used in treating bleeding disorders, skin diseases, intestinal worms, inflammatory conditions and piles.

Pippalyasava: It is a liquid ayurvedic medicine used in treating cough, asthma, anemia, piles and irritable bowel syndrome.

Amroid ointment: This is a proprietary ayurvedic medicine useful to treat piles, bleeding per rectum and local inflammation around the anal opening.

Research articles on Callicarpa  macrophylla:
Anti- bacterial activity: In this study, researchers investigated the ex vivo antibacterial activity of C. macrophylla stem ethanolic (SEE) and aqueous extracts (SAE) against various gram positive and gram negative strains. SEE have fairly growth inhibitory activity against all the bacterial strains, but exceptionally SAE was inactive against all except Salmonella typhimurium.

Wound healing action: In this present study ethanolic polyherbal extract including that of C.macrophylla is screened for its phytochemical evaluated in wound healing activity in Wister rats by excision wound model using povidone iodine as a reference standard. From the results it was found that Polyherbal  ethanolic extract possess significant wound healing action when compared to control and equipotent wound healing activity when compared to standard povidine iodine.

Classical categorization:
Charaka –
Mutravirajaniya – group of herbs that colour and cleanse urine
Purisha samgrahaniya – group of herbs that increase bulk of stools

Sushruta – Priyangvadi gana, Anjanadi gana
Astanga sangraha – Anjanadi gana
Bhavaprakash Nighantu – Karpooradi varga
Dhanwantari Nighantu –Chandanadi varga
Kaiyyadeva Nighantu- Dhanya varga, Oushadhi varga
Raja Nighantu- Chandanadi varga

Scientific classification
Kingdom – Plantae
Sub kingdom – Phanero gamia
Division – Angio spermae
Class – Dicotyledons
Subclass – Gamopetalae
Family – Verbanaceae
Genus – Callicarpa
Species – Macrophylla

Literary review:
The drug Priyangu is first mentioned in Charaka samhita, useful in Raktapitta.
In Astanga sangraha, mentioned as Priyangvadi gana, Anjanadi gana.
In Sushruta samhita, mentioned under the same. It is Shitada, Kaphapittahara. It is useful in Jvara, Daha, Trishna, Gulma, etc.

By Nighantus:

  1. Dhanwantari Nighantu, it pacifies kapha and pittadosha. Useful in burning sensation, headache, excessive perspiration, ulcers, rheumatoid arthritis.
  2. Bhavaprakasha Nighantu: Includes Raktatisara, Jvara, Daha, Gulma, it is Kapapittajit    and Balakrita.
  3. Madanpal Nighantu, also describes as Raktasangrahaniya gana, Pittanashini, for Vrishya etc.
  4. Raja Nighantu, also includes gana’s as Mutra-virajaniya, Purish sangrahaniya.
  5. In Nighantu Ratnakar, described the varieties as named Gandhpriyangu, it is Shita in nature, useful in Keshya, Dahapitta, Raktaruja, Vatagulma, visha, meha, meda, malastambhakar also kaphanasha.

Also considered as Srotogamitva and also Adhmanakara, it is Guru in nature, Shita, Ruksha.

Varieties:
According to classical reference of Bheda:
Two types:
1. Dhanyapriyangu – Setaria italica is source of food grain. Dhanya means grain. Hence, this is considered as Dhanya Priyangu (also called Aushadha priyangu).
2. Gandhapriyangu – Prunus mahaleb, Algaia roxburghiana mig, Callicarpa tomentose (L.) murray

Habitat:
It is found in North -eastern parts of India and at 3000 ft in Himalayan region. Found in village shrubberies and gardens through out north -east India, west Bengal – abundant plant.

Author:  Dr.B.K.Prashanth M.D (Ayu), Ph.D
E mail: drprashanthbk@gmail.com

 

 

 


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