Trayamana: Gentiana kurroo: Benefits, Remedies, Research, Side Effects

Trayamana- Gentiana kurroo is an Ayurvedic herb useful in the treatment of  wound, skin diseases, dysmenorrhea, fever and liver disorders etc. 

Latin name- Gentiana kurroo Royale
Family- Gentianaceae

Names in different languages:
Hindi name- Kadu
English name-Indian gentian, Himalayan Gentian,
Bengali name- Karu, Koutki, chireta, kadu, trayaman
Gujarathi name- Pakanbas
Kannada name- Karadihanni, kiriyatu
Kashmiri name- Kadu
Marathi name- Pakanbhed
Malayalam name- Trayamana, kiriyat
Punjabi name- Nilkanth, Kamalphool
Tamil name- Kamantirai, kampantirai, nilavempu, nilavimbu
Telugu name- Kalu kranuga, Buroni, nelavemu
Urdu name- Nilkanth
Manipuri name – Kiryet

Sanskrit Synonyms-
Trayanti, Grirjanuja, Girisanuja, Palanika, Ardra,
Phalini – bears fruits
Kritatrana, Varshika, Trana, Sunamika, Sukama
Devabala, Rakshani, Baladeva, Balabhadra, Mangalya – auspicious
Bhayanashini – relieves the fear of disease

Morphology:
Trayamana is a small herb growing in the Himalyan range and in the hilly regions of India. The plant can be found growing to a height of 1 foot in between the stones and cliffs. The flowers are dark blue to purple color and the fruits are 0.5 to 0.75 inch in diameter. The flowers are seen after the rainy season. The root of the plant is brown or ash colored.

Gentiana kurroo medicinal properties:
Rasa (Taste) -Tikta (Bitter)
Guna (Qualities) – Laghu (Light for digestion), Ruksha (Dry in nature)
Vipaka – Katu (Undergoes Pungent taste after digestion)
Veerya (Potency) – Ushna (Hot)
Karma (Actions) – Kaphavata shamaka (reduces vitiated kapha and vata dosha)

Part used- Root
Dosage-
1 to 3 g of root powder
30 to 40 ml of decoction

Chemical constituents of Gentiana kurroo:
The most important constituents of the herb are secoiridoid bitter compounds, amaro gentin and gentiopicroside, together with traces of swertiamarin and sweroside. The roots also contain al- kaloids, gentianine and gentioflavine, xanthones,and bitter oligosaccharides, gentiobiose and gentianose. Amarogentin, gentiopicrin, swertiamarin, sioeroside (iridoid monoterpenes) are toxic constituents.

Uses of Trayaman:

  • The decoction of the root of Trayamana is used to treat fever and is considered as blood purifier and carminative.
  • The decoction of the root of Gentiana kurroo is useful to treat leucoderma and syphilis.
  • The powder of the root of the plant is given with honey in a dose of 3 to 5 g to treat cases of poisoning.
  • The paste of the powder is applied over area affected with alopecia as part of treatment.
  • The cold infusion of the root is given to treat indigestion and piles.
  • The root powder is substituted with the root of Katuki (P.kurroo) and used for purgation.
  • In cases of hemorrhage from small vessels, the medicated ghee prepared from the juice of Trayamana is given with honey.
  • Cold infusion of the root is given to treat difficulty in micturition and dysmenorrhea.

Uses of Indian Gentian as per Ayurveda:
Balances Pitta and Kapha Dosha
Indicated in –
Jwara – fever
Hrudroga – cadiac disorders
Gulma – Tumors of the abdomen
Arsha – haemorrhoids
Bhrama – Delusion, Dizziness
Shoola – abdominal colic pain
Visha – Toxic conditions, poisoning
Sutika shoola – relieves abdominal pain of new mother after delivery.
Bhrama – Delusion, Dizziness
Trushna – excessive thirst
Kshaya – depletion of body tissues, weight loss, tuberculosis
Glani – fatigue, tiredness
Visha – Toxic conditions, poisoning
Chardi – Vomiting
Adverse effect:
No known adverse effect is known or reported from the use of Trayamana.

Ayurvedic medicines containing Trayamana:
Ardraka Ghrita: Ardraka ghritam is an Ayurvedic medicine, in herbal ghee form. It is used for preparatory procedure for Panchakarma and also as medicine, used in the treatment of indigestion, chronic diarrhea, anorexia etc.

Kottakkal Maha Tiktaka Lepa: It is a proprietary medicine useful for the treatment of various skin diseases and non- healing ulcers.

Patoladi choorna: Patoladi Choornam is an Ayurvedic medicine in herbal powder form, used in the treatment of digestive, cardiac and liver disorders.

Research articles related to Gentiana kurroo:
Anti- inflammatory action: Different plant extracts used in the current study were found to show an anti-inflammatory activity. As compared to control group the treated groups showed decrease in the edema formation after 4 hrs.

Classical categorization:
Charaka- Kashaya skanda – astringent tasting group of herbs
Sushruta- Lakshadi gana
Dhanvantari Nighantu- Guduchyadi varga
Bhavaprakasha- Guduchyadi varga
Kaiyyadeva  Nighantu- Oushadhi varga
Raja Nighantu- Parpatadi varga

Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Gentianales
Family: Gentianaceae
Genus: Gentiana L.

Author: Dr.B.K.Prashanth M.D (Ayu), Ph.D
E mail: drprashanthbk@gmail.com


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