Madanaphala – Randia dumetorum – Benefits, Qualities, Side Effects

Madanaphala is one of the most commonly used Ayurveda herbs. Its botanical name is Randia dumetorum. It is used in the famous Ayurveda Panchakarma procedure called as Vamana (vomiting therapy). Apart from this, the herb has many health benefits and usage. 

 Botanical Name:- Randia dumetorum Lam. (Randia spinosa Pior;  R . brandisi Gamble; R. Longispina  W& A; R. Tomentosa W &A; Xeromphis spinosa Keay)

Family – RUBIACEAE
Vernacular Names – Hindi Names – Mainaphal;
Telugu Name– Mranga Kaya;
English Name – Emetic nut
Bengali Name-Mayanaphal
Marathi Name – Golaphal
Gujrati Name – Mindhala
Tamil  Name – Maruk Kalam
Kannada Name _ Madakari
Malayalam  Name– Kara

Synonyms –
Madana – it causes Mada – intoxication
Chardana – helps induce vomiting
Pindi, Pindeetaka – the fruit is spherical in shape
Shalyaka – has spines. (Shalya means sharp surgical instrument)
Vishapushpaka – having toxic flowers
Karahata, Ratha

Classical Categorization

Charaka
Asthapanopaga – group of herbs used in Asthapana type of Basti (decoction enema treatment).
Anuvasanopaga – group of herbs used in Anuvasana basti (oil enema)
Vamana Dravya – group of emetic herbs
Phalini – Group of herbs with fruit as the used part.

Sushruta– Aragvadhadi, Muskakadi,  Urdhabhagahara group of herbs.

Vagbhata Aragvadhadi group of herbs.

Different varieties
In Kaiyadeva nighantu – two varieties  – Madana- R. Dumetorum and Shwetaa pindeetaka – R. Uliginosa Dc. It is again of two types. Suksma Pinditaka and Maha Pinditaka (small and big sized fruits)

Distribution – found throughout the tropical and subtropical forests in India.

Major  chemical constituents – R. Dumetorum: Fruits/ seeds- citric & tartaric acids; randianin  – sandianin;  Randia Acid, ursosaponin, dumetoronins A,B,C,D,E&F; randoside A; Arachidic, Lignoceric, Linoleic, Oleic, Palmitic & stearic acids etc.
(Reference: Illustrated Dravyaguna VIjnana, Vol. II, by Dr JLN Shastry)

Properties:
Rasa (taste)– Madhura (sweet), Tikta (Bitter)
Guna (qualities)– Laghu (light to digest),  Rooksha (dry)
Vipaka (taste conversion after digestion) – Katu (pungent)
Veerya (potency) -Ushna (hot)
Karma– Balances kapha-vata Chardana (induces vomiting), Lekhana (scrapes inner lining of blood pipes, reduces cholesterol)

 Part Used– Fruit, seeds

Dosage– therapeutic 1 grams
For vomiting therapy –  3 – 6 g

Method of collection –  –
madanaphala

Between Spring (Vasanta) and Summer (Greeshma), in Pushya, Ashvini or Mrigashira star day, ripened yellow, moderate sized fruits of Madanaphala, which is free of worm infestation, should be collected.

The fruits are wrapped in hey and cow dung paste and dried. It is kept immersed for 8 days in heap of  hey of black gram, green gram, horse gram etc.
After 8 days, when it becomes soft and starts emitting honey like smell, it is taken out, dried. Then the seeds are removed. It is ground with ghee, butter, honey and sesame paste and dried.
Thus obtained powder is preserved in a clean container and used for therapeutic purposes.

How to use Madanaphala for Vamana?
For the patient who is fit for Vamana procedure, he should first be made to undergo Snehana (oil treatment) and Swedana (sweating treatment).
On the  previous night he should be administered with Kapha increasing food like meat soup, milk, curds, black gram etc.
Next day, first Yavagu is given first. Then Madanaphala is given along with a little ghee. For this, the previous day, Madanaphala should be soaked in the decoction (Kashaya) of Yashtimadhu, Kovidara, Kadamba, Samudraphala, Bimbi, Shanapushpi, Arka, Apamarga.

Randia dumetorum qualities and uses – 
Randia spinosa - uses

(correction in last but second line – Madhano Madhurastikto..)

Vranapaha – helps in quick wound healing
Useful in the treatment of
Shleshma Jwara – fever of Kapha origin
Pratishyaya – running nose, rhinitis
Gulma – abdominal tumor,
Vidradhi – abscess
Shopha – inflammation

Side effects: If used in excess, it may cause excess of vomiting, indigestion and anorexia.

Ayurvedic medicines with Madanaphal ingredient –
Aragwdhadi Kashayam, Aragwadhadi Ghrita – useful in skin diseases including psoriasis.
Arimedadi Thailam – used for oil pulling in teeth and gum disorders
Bala Tel – useful in cough, cold, asthma etc.


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