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Patha – Rajapata – Dose, Medicinal qualities, Benefits, Ayurveda Details

Patha – Cissampelos pareira is an Ayurvedic herb, used mainly in the treatment of fever, intestinal worms, non healing wounds etc. Another herb – Cyclea peltata is also used in the name of Patha.

Botanical name – Cissampelos pareira
Family – Menispermaceae

Classification of Cyclea peltata
Kingdom – Plantae
Division – Spermatophyta
Sub-division – Angiospermae
Class  – Dicotyledonae
Order – Ranales
Family – Menispermaceae
Genus – Cyclea
Species – Peltata

Names in different languages:
Hindi name – Padhi, Padha
Kannada name – Padavali
Telugu name – Chiruboddi
Malayalam – Patathali, Kattuvalli
Gujarati name – Venivel
Bengali name – Akanadi
Marathi name – Padavela

Patha was found by Garuda and Shukara. This drug has been used by Indra to kill Asuras. In Vedic litratures Patha was described as Pata. Synonyms were used at those times were Uttanaparna, Devajuta, Sahamaanasaheeyas etc. Vedic texts have quoted it as Viryavathi, Vishagni, Rakshogni, Medya, Kamya and Garbhastapana. Rigveda has delinated this as Sapthaneebhadana and Vaseekarana. In Atharvaveda it was used for increasing IQ and conquering the opponent in debates.

Sanskrit Synonyms: Ambashta, Varatikta (bitter in taste), Pracheena, Aviddha karni, Ekasthila, Kuchelika
Classical categorization:
Seers have categorized Patha into following group of herbs.
Charaka –
Sandhaneeya – which has joining nature, useful in wounds and fractures.
Jwarahara – Useful in treatment of fever
Stnayashodhana – Cleansing breast milk
Sushruta –
Mustadi, Aragvadhadi, Pippalyadi. Ambashtadi, Brihatyadi, Patoladi
Vagbhata – Mustadi, Aragvadhadi, Ambashtadi, Patoladi, Vatsakadi.

Sousruthanighantu          :- Vidangadi gana
Ashtanganighantu :- Pippalyadi gana
Dhanwantarinighantu :- Guduchydi varga
Shodalanighantu :- Guduchydi varga
Shadrasanighantu    :- Madanadi varga
Hridayadeepikanighantu :- Doshagna varga
Rajanighantu :- Pippalyadi varga
Kaiyyadevanighantu  :- Aushadi varga
Bhavaprakashanighantu :- Guduchyadi varga
Shaligrama Nighantu :- Guduchydi varga
Nighantuadarsha :- Guduchydi varga
Priya Nighantu :- Pippalyadi varga

Ayurveda explains 2 types of Paata
1. Raaja paata (Cyclea peltata)
2. Laghu paata (Cissampelos pariera)
Cissampelos pariera is considered to be the main source of Paata in the Northern India & in south Cyclea peltata is the source of Paata.
Also Stephania hernandrifolia  / Stephania glabra are considered the source of Paata in different regions

Chemical constituents:
Cissampelos pareira – Hayatin, Hayatinin, Menismine, Cissamine, Pareirine, Cycleanine, Bebeerine, quercitol
Cyclea peltata- Perpamine, Cycleamine, Chondocurine, Magnoflorine, etc.

Cissampelos pareira Medicinal properties
Taste: Tikta – Bitter
Guna (Qualities): Laghu – light to digest, Teekshna – piercing, enters deep into the tissues.
Vipaka – taste conversion after digestion – Katu (pungent)
Veerya (Potency) – Hot
Effect on Tridosha – Balances Pitta and Kapha

Patha - uses

Vrushya – acts as aphrodisiac.
Vishaghni, Vishahara, – detoxifier
Kushta, Kandunut – relieves skin diseases with itching as symptom.
Chardijit – relieves vomiting
Hrudroga – relieves heart diseases
Jwara – relieves fever
Tridoshashamani – balances Tridosha, especially Vata and Kapha
Atisara – relieves diarrhoea
Shulaghni – relieves abdominal colic pain
Kaphapitta jwara – Relieves fever due to imbalance of Kapha and Pitta. (which involves heaviness and burning sensation symptoms)
Krumi – Relieves intestinal worms
Gulma – relieves abdominal mass / bloating
Gara – relieves chronic toxicity
Vrana – brings about wound healing.

Part used: Root and stem
Churna (powder) – 1 – 3 grams per day
Kashaya – Decoction – 15 – 60 ml per day, in divided doses

Screening of antimicrobial activity of Cissampelos pareira
Anti-fertility activity of Cissampelos pareira
Diuretic activity of Cyclea peltata

Side effects:
Because Cissampelos pareira is used as female contraceptive in rural areas, it is not suitable for long term usage in women seeking infertility treatment. However, it can be administered for a short period of time.
It can be given in lower doses during lactation and in children. Seek medical advice during pregnancy, for its usage.

Important formulations:
Pushyanug Churna –  used in the Ayurvedic treatment of Menorrhagia, Metrorrhagia, Leucorrhoea, Menstrual disorder etc
Shaddharana Tablet –  used in treating Vata diabetes related to muscles, joints and nerves.
Useerasav – used in treating bleeding disorders, skin diseases, piles
Chandanasavam – used in the treatment of spermatorrhoea. It is also used to improve strength.

Ayurvedic medicines containing Paata as mentioned in Charaka Samhita
Sthanya shodhana mahakashaya – used to cleanse and detoxify breast milk – Sutrasthana 4/18
Jwarahara mahakashaya – used in fever – Sutrasthana 4/39
Vyoshadya saktu – used in Prameha (diabetes), Kushta (skin disorders), Arsha (piles), Kamala) – Sutrasthana 23/19-25
Pathadi kwatha – Used to detoxify breast milk – Shareera sthana 8/56
Vatsakadi kwatha – Used in fever – Chikitsathana 3/204-205
Lodhrasava – Pittaja prameha, kilasa, Pandu – Chikitsa sthana 6/41-44
Mahatikta ghrita – Kushta, Kamala – Chi.7/144-148
Mahapanchagavya ghrita – Kamala, Udara roga, Halimaka – Chi.10/18-24
Phalarishta – Kamala, Pleeha vridhi, Grahani – Chi.14/148-152
Panchamakshara – Pleeha roga, Mutra ghatha, Atisara – Chi.15/189-192
Vyoshadya ghrita – Kamala, Udara roga, Pandu – Chi.16/119
Trushadya ghrita – Kamala, Pleeha – Chi.18/39-42
Panchmooladi basti – Pandu, Alasaka – Siddhistana a – 3/59-60

Ayurvedic medicines containing Paata as mentioned in Sushruta Samhita
Aragvadadhi gana – Prameha, Kushta, Kandu – Sutrasthana 38/6
Musthadi gana – Sthanya shodhaka, Yoni vikara – Su.38/54
Hingvadi churna – Pleeha, Udara – Chi.5/28
Mahatikta ghrita – Kandu, Rakta pitta – Chi.9/8
Priyangvadi churna – Prameha – Chi.11/10-61
Patha chitrakadi churna (leha) – Prameha pidaka – Chi.12/9
Bhadradi asthapana – Kamala, Prameha – Chi.38/60
Dvipanchamoola ghritam – Udara roga, Prameha – Ut.41/47
Pathadi churnam – Pleeha, Grahani – Ut.42/50 

Ayurvedic medicines containing Paata as mentioned in Ashanga Hrudaya
Vidangadi ghrita – Jeerna Jwara – Chi.1/93
Madhukadi ghrita – Pandu, Arsha – Chi 8/130-133
Rodrasava  – Prameha, Pandu – Chi.11/26
Higvadi churna – Pleeha, Pandu – Chi.14/31-33
Mahavajraka ghrita – Kushta, Pleeha – Chi.19/19-20
Nimbadi ghrita – Pandu, Prameha – Chi.21/57-61 

Ayurvedic medicines containing Paata as mentioned in Sharangdhara Samhita
Pippalyadi churna – Grahani – S.S.M.6/65
Hingwadi churna – Yakrit vikara – S.S.M.6/121
Kutaja avaleha – Kamala, Pandu, Udara roga – S.S.M.8/38-44

Ayurvedic medicines containing Patha as mentioned in Bhaishaj Ratnavali
Jwaranagara mayura churnam – Jwara, Kamala, Pandu – B.R.5/467- 478
Madhyama gangadhara churna – Udara, Grahani – B.R.8/46- 49
Lavangadhya churna – Kamala, Haleemaka, Pandu – B.R.8/76- 82
Jeerakadhya churna – Kamala, Pandu – B.R.8/108-112
Yakridariloham – Yakrit vridhi, Gulma – B.R.41/132-135 


THERAPEUTIC USES  of Cissampelos pareira  – Patha 

Decoction of Patha, Ushira and Balaka acts as digestive in fever. So is that of Shunti, Balaka, Yavasa separately with Parpata.(V.D1-8)
Juice of Patha root is taken in the morning 4 – 3 days checks fever with rigor and and so does Lashuna.(V.D1-8)

The dired vegetable of Lonika and Patha cooked with curd and Pomgranate and added with profuse fat should be given in food.(C.S.Chi19-33)
Ankhota root and similarly Patha leaf with Buffalos buttermilk checks diarrhea. (B.A Atisara 171)
Patha or Mangos bark pounded with cows curd alleviates the disorder and burning sensation of Diarrhoe immediately(B.P.Chi.2-42)

Patha combined with any one of Dhuralabha, Yavani, Bilva, or Shunti destroys piles.(C.S.Chi.14-100)

Liquid gruel cooked with Patha and Panchakola has the same properties ie it is useful in oedema, diarrhoe, heart disease, gulma, piles, slowdigestion & prameha. (A.H.Chi 17-21)

For Lavanameha Decoction of Patha and Aguru is the specific remedy.(S.S.Chi.11-5)
In Sarpirmeha one should take the powder of Patha, Kutaja, Hingu, Katuka, Kushta with Guduchi and Chitraka.(V.M35-12)

Internal Abscess
Patha root mixed with honey and taken in Rice water cures internal Abscess immediately(V.M43-15)

In wound caused by Kapha, Leaves of Patha, Moorva, Guduchi, Kakamachi, Haridra, Shukanabha should be used for covering.(S.S.Chi1-115)

For easy delivery
By applying the paste of Patha, Tulasi, Vasa, Apamarga and Kutaja separately on umbilicus, pelvis and vulva of the women delivers easily.(V.M65-12)

As galacto depurant
Patha comes first in the Galacto depurant group.(K.s.P-7)

Hemicrania is relieved by taking Patha leaf as the snuff.(G.N3-2-6)

Splenomegaly –
Intake of root of White Punarnava or Patha or Guduchi pounded with rice water destroys splenomegaly. (R.M7-5)

Dr JV Hebbar B.A.M.S, MD (Ayu), is an Ayurveda Doctor. Click here to consult Dr Hebbar
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